Blue Carbon Offsets: All 6 Pros and 4 Cons Explained

Blue Carbon Offsets: All 6 Pros and 4 Cons Explained

By
Grace Smoot

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Blue carbon ecosystems (e.g., mangroves, seagrasses, salt marshes) are some of the most biodiverse, ecologically significant, and important carbon sinks we have. Protecting and bolstering them is crucial in the fight against climate change, and investing in blue carbon offsets is one way to do this. So, we had to ask: What are the pros and cons of blue carbon offsets?

Blue carbon offsets reinforce our marine carbon sink, avoid CO2 emissions after project life spans, preserve biodiversity, maintain water quality, and are relatively cost-effective. However, they also often lack permanence, a standardized methodology, and large-scale funding.

Keep reading to find out all about what the pros and cons of blue carbon offsets are, how you can offset your carbon footprint with them, how they can mitigate climate change, and what better alternatives to blue carbon offsets are. 

The Big Picture of Blue Carbon Offsets

Carbon offsets are reductions in carbon emissions that are used to compensate for carbon emissions occurring elsewhere. They are measured in tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents and are bought and sold through international brokers, online retailers, and trading platforms on what is known as the global carbon offset market. 

“Carbon Offset: a way for a company or person to reduce the level of carbon dioxide for which they are responsible by paying money to a company that works to reduce the total amount produced in the world, for example by reforestation”

Oxford Dictionary

Blue carbon offsets are a specific type of carbon offset that focuses on the preservation of coastal and marine ecosystems. Blue carbon is the carbon that is stored in coastal and marine ecosystems (e.g., mangroves, seagrasses, and salt marshes). 

“Blue Carbon: the term for carbon captured by the world’s ocean and coastal ecosystems.”

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

There are over 120 million acres of blue carbon ecosystems worldwide that provide habitat for species, support food security, sustain coastal communities, and protect our coastlines. Mangroves are found in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical shores, seagrasses in coastal waters, and salt marshes in temperate zones. 

Blue carbon is one example of biological carbon sequestration, or the storage of carbon in vegetation (forests), soils, and oceans, which are commonly referred to as our carbon sinks. Blue carbon offsets focus on preserving mangroves, seagrasses, and salt marshes, which constitute one of our largest carbon sinks yet are being degraded at 4x the rate of tropical forests

6 Pros of Blue Carbon Offsets4 Cons of Blue Carbon Offsets
Blue carbon offsets reinforce our marine carbon sinkBlue carbon offsets often lack permanence
Blue carbon offsets can continue to avoid CO2 emissions after their project life spanBlue carbon offsets lack a standardized methodology
Blue carbon offsets preserve biodiversityBlue carbon offsets lack financial support
Blue carbon offsets help maintain water qualityBlue carbon offsets do not reduce your own carbon emissions, which can lead to greenwashing
Blue carbon offsets are cost-effective
Blue carbon offsets allow us to reduce carbon emissions in ways we wouldn’t be able to accomplish individually

The carbon absorption ability and ecosystem services that blue carbon provides make protecting these ecosystems crucial in the fight against climate change. Marine ecosystems not only act as one of our largest carbon sinks, but they also provide numerous benefits in addition to climate change mitigation.

Related: Are you interested in learning more about the big picture of blue carbon offsets? Check it out in this article here: “What Are Blue Carbon Offsets and How Do They Work? The Big Picture”

What Are 6 Pros of Blue Carbon Offsets

Blue carbon offsets reinforce our marine carbon sinks, can continue to avoid CO2 emissions after their project life span, preserve biodiversity, help maintain water quality, are relatively cost-effective, and allow us to reduce carbon emissions in ways we wouldn’t be able to accomplish individually.

Pro #1: Blue Carbon Offsets Reinforce Our Marine Carbon Sink

Blue carbon offsets reinforce coastal and marine ecosystems, which are one of our largest carbon sinks.

Blue Carbon Offset Pro #1

Blue carbon is one example of biological carbon sequestration, or the storage of carbon in vegetation (forests), soils, and oceans, which are commonly referred to as our carbon sinks. Blue carbon ecosystems can permanently store carbon at depths of up to 6 meters for up to 1,000 years.

“Carbon Sink: an area of forest that is large enough to absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide from the earth’s atmosphere and therefore to reduce the effect of global warming”

Cambridge Dictionary

Blue carbon ecosystems can also sequester carbon at higher rates per unit area than terrestrial ecosystems. Mangroves and salt marshes can absorb 3-5x more carbon per acre (ac) than tropical forests at a rate 10 times greater, and seagrass meadows store 11% of the ocean’s buried carbon despite only accounting for only 0.1% of the world’s seafloor. 

If undisturbed, blue carbon ecosystems can absorb enough carbon to keep pace with moderate sea level rise. In the top meter of soil alone, mangroves can store an average of 1,494 tons of CO2 per hectare (ha), seagrass meadows 951, and tidal marshes 607. But the real carbon storage potential is underground, with 50–99% of the carbon stored in blue ecosystems located in the soil underground

Deforesting mangroves or draining wetlands significantly impacts climate change because it results in the loss of stored carbon in biomass plus the active re-emission of carbon stored deep in the soil. It is estimated that the degradation or conversion of these ecosystems releases between 0.15 and 1.02 billion tons of CO2 annually.

In short, blue carbon offsets reinforce marine and coastal ecosystems, which are one of our biggest carbon sinks capable of absorbing billions of metric tons of CO2 every year. 

Pro #2: Blue Carbon Offsets Can Continue to Avoid CO2 Emissions After Their Project Life Span

Blue carbon offsets can continue to reduce CO2 emissions after project durations.

Blue Carbon Offset Pro #2

Carbon emission reductions are delayed when you plant new mangrove forests because you have to wait for the trees to reach maturity before they can begin to reduce carbon emissions. However, these trees can continue absorbing carbon long after they mature, so long as they are not deforested. This means that blue carbon projects can continue to reduce carbon emissions long after their project life span has officially ended.

The ability of blue carbon offsets to continue to reduce carbon after the project has been completed is dependent on the continued protection of the ecosystem. Blue carbon offsets do not necessarily protect trees after they have been planted; REDD+ carbon offsets are more concerned with protecting already existing forests. Meaning that any future carbon reductions could be negated if the trees are deforested before they can die naturally.

In short, blue carbon offsets continue to reduce carbon long after the project has been completed, so long as they are not deforested prematurely.

Pro #3: Blue Carbon Offsets Preserve Biodiversity

Blue carbon offsets bolster our marine ecosystems, which act as habitats for vast numbers of marine plant and animal species.

Blue Carbon Offset Pro #3

Biodiversity refers to all the living species on earth, which includes 1.2 million species of identified plants and animals, and 7.5 million not yet identified species that experts estimate to exist. 

“Biodiversity: the variety of life found in a place on Earth or, often, the total variety of life on Earth”

Encyclopedia Britannica

Blue carbon offsets promote biodiversity because they support aquatic wildlife by providing habitat and helping to keep our waterways healthy. Many birds, fish, invertebrates, mammals, and plants rely on mangroves, seagrass, and salt marshes for habitats. 

When we deforest and dredge these ecosystems, we destroy the habitats of all of the abovementioned species, and many more. Habitat loss is the leading driver of biodiversity loss, and biodiversity is crucial to our planet’s health. Having a variety of plants and animals sustains healthy ecosystems. And healthy ecosystems are associated with clean water, air, and healthy food supplies. 

In short, blue carbon offsets restore marine ecosystems that act as habitats for and can harbor millions of aquatic plant and animal species.

Pro #4: Blue Carbon Offsets Help Maintain Water Quality 

Blue carbon offsets bolster marine communities, which increases water quality.

Blue Carbon Offset Pro #4

All trees capture, store, and use rainfall which aids in maintaining water quality and regulating the natural water cycle. When it rains, trees slow down the flow of water by absorbing it into the ground. This filters pollution and reduces flooding risks. 

More specifically, blue carbon ecosystems play an important role in regulating water quality because they act as giant water filters. 

  • Mangroves have a complex system of above-ground roots that capture rainfall and filter out nitrates, phosphates, and other pollutants, thereby improving water quality.
  • Seagrasses and seagrass beds trap particulate matter and sediment in the water column, which increases water clarity.
  • Salt marshes trap sediment, filter runoff, and metabolize excess nutrients. 

If coastal ecosystems are cleared or degraded, their ability to absorb rainfall, slow down and filter water, and protect our coastlines is diminished. And this could lead to floods, decreased water quality, and leave our coastlines vulnerable to extreme weather events.

In short, blue carbon offsets protect blue ecosystems, which maintain water quality.

Pro #5: Blue Carbon Offsets Are Relatively Cost-Effective

Blue carbon offsets are a cost-effective method of carbon emission reduction.

Blue Carbon Offset Pro #5

Sustainable Development Goal 14 (SDG 14), to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development, is an expensive undertaking. Experts estimate that it will take $175 billion per year to meet SDG 14, 1/5 of which ($35 billion) is just for protecting and restoring wetland ecosystems, coastal habitats, and coral reefs

Blue carbon offsets could help finance this process because they are typically more cost-effective than other categories of carbon offsets. For example, blue carbon offsets from leading providers (e.g., The Ocean Foundation, One Tree Planted, Reforest’Action, and South Pole) cost less than $30 per ton of CO2 offset. Compare this to direct carbon capture offsets which can cost anywhere from $100-$1,200 per ton of CO2 offset. 

In short, blue carbon offsets are relatively cost-effective when compared to other methods of carbon emission reduction.

Pro #6: Blue Carbon Offsets Can Help Offset Carbon Emissions That Can’t Be Reduced Otherwise

Blue carbon offsets allow us to reduce carbon emissions in ways we wouldn’t be able to accomplish individually.

Blue Carbon Offset Pro #6

We already have governmental-level policies in place to reduce carbon emissions, but carbon offsets allow us to reduce emissions from activities where sustainable alternatives are not yet widely available. 

Carbon offsets are designed for situations where your emissions are impossible to reduce. For example, we can only do so much to reduce our individual carbon footprints. Using public transportation, washing with cold water, and switching from single-use to sustainable products lowers our carbon footprint, but it does not eliminate them completely. This is where blue carbon offsets come into play, to reduce carbon emissions in other areas as compensation for the remainder of our carbon emissions.

In short, blue carbon offsets allow us to reduce carbon emissions in ways we wouldn’t be able to accomplish individually.

What Are 4 Cons of Blue Carbon Offsets

Blue carbon offsets often lack permanence, a standardized methodology, and large-scale funding, and they do not reduce your own carbon emissions.

Con #1: Blue Carbon Offsets Often Lack Permanence

Blue carbon offsets lack permanence because they are reversible, nature-based solutions.

Blue Carbon Carbon Offset Con #1

To be effective, blue carbon offset projects must be permanent, in the sense that there must be a full guarantee against reversals of carbon emission for the foreseeable future. 

Blue carbon ecosystems have a leg up on terrestrial ecosystems in terms of permanence for a variety of reasons:

However, nature-based solutions, such as blue carbon, still lack permanence. Blue carbon ecosystems are currently being degraded at 4 times the rate of tropical forests. We are currently losing mangroves, seagrasses, and tidal marshes at a rate of 2%, 1.5%, and 1-2% per year, respectively.

Climate change is one of the leading factors that can negate blue carbon permanence. Coastal ecosystems are especially sensitive to sea level rise, storm intensity, and rising ocean temperatures, all of which have been occurring at an accelerated rate. Ocean acidification, a result of warming ocean temperatures, particularly threatens these ecosystems and the biodiversity they harbor.

In short, nature-based solutions, such as blue carbon efforts, lack permanence because they are reversible.

Con #2: Blue Carbon Offsets Lack a Standardized Methodology

Unlike terrestrial ecosystems, blue carbon ecosystems lack a standardized methodology for blue carbon offsets.

Blue Carbon Offset Con #2

The storage of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is well documented and managed via the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism, which places an economic value on the actions a country takes to reduce deforestation and preserve forests. However, there is no overarching mechanism to regulate the carbon stored in coastal, marine, or wetland soils and biomass.

Leading standards all have different methodologies for assessing blue carbon. 

A lack of standardization has also led to a lack of certified projects available on the voluntary carbon offset market (VCM). As of 2020, there were only 5 projects registered under approved methodologies, and all at a relatively small scale. The average project size was 300,000 tons of CO2 over the project lifetime, compared with 2.4 million tons of CO2 for other nature-based solutions.

In short, blue carbon offsets lack a standardized methodology, which leads to a lack of certified projects on the VCM.

Con #3: Blue Carbon Offsets Often Lack Large-Scale Funding 

Blue carbon offsets receive a fraction of global climate investments despite having a large global warming reduction potential.

Blue Carbon Offset Con #3

We have known about the ecological importance of blue ecosystems for decades, but historically, blue carbon has lacked sufficient financial support. Although they are capable of providing 1/3 of the total emissions reductions needed to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius, blue carbon ecosystems only receive 3% of total climate investments globally.

Also, blue carbon projects are typically located in underdeveloped countries, in remote locations, and in locations difficult to traverse through. This makes carbon credit certification for these projects difficult and sometimes costly. As more blue carbon methodologies are established, experts expect monetization of coastal wetland conservation and restoration activities to increase

In short, blue carbon offsets lack sufficient funding to implement them on a large scale.

Con #4: Blue Carbon Offsets Do Not Reduce Your Own Carbon Emissions

Blue carbon offsets do not reduce your own carbon emissions, which can lead to greenwashing.

Blue Carbon Offset Con #4

In general, one of the main limitations of carbon offsetting is that purchasing a carbon offset does not directly reduce your carbon footprint. It only makes others reduce their carbon footprint to compensate for your carbon footprint. 

If emissions are only offset and not reduced from the source, this could lead to greenwashing, when the consumer is deceived into thinking they are offsetting their emissions but in reality, they are not. Companies accused of greenwashing either invest in non-verified credits, do not prioritize in-house emissions reductions, or double-count carbon credits. Or sometimes, all of the above.

In short, because blue carbon offsets do not reduce your own carbon emissions, they could lead to greenwashing.

How Could you Offset Your Own Carbon Footprint With Blue Carbon Offsets

The market for carbon offsets was small in the year 2000, but by 2010 it had already grown to represent nearly $10 billion worldwide. The voluntary carbon offset market (VCM) is where everyday consumers can purchase carbon offsets to offset their carbon emissions. 

The Ecosystem Marketplace predicts the VCM can grow to $50B by the year 2050. And because blue carbon offsets protect one of our largest carbon sinks, they are predicted to make up an increasingly larger share of this market.

Related: Are you interested in learning more about the best blue carbon offsets? Check out the full article here: “Best Blue Carbon Offsets (Complete 2024 List)”
Blue Carbon Offset CompanyQuick Facts
The Ocean FoundationAbout: Carbon offset purchases support the SeaGrass Grow, seagrass planting project.
Costs: $20 per 1,000kg of CO2
SeaTreesAbout: Carbon offset purchases support coral reef/kelp forest/watershed restoration as well as mangrove tree planting.
Costs: $22 per 1,000kg of CO2
One Tree PlantedAbout: Carbon offset purchases support their mangrove planting blue carbon project, which plants mangrove trees in Costa Rica, the Philippines, India, Haiti, and Guatemala.
Costs: $20 per 1,000kg of CO2
Reforest’ActionAbout: Carbon offset purchases support the mangrove restoration projects in Sumatra.
Costs: Approx. $20 per 1,000kg of CO2
South PoleAbout: Carbon offset purchases support the Rimba Raya Biodiversity Preserve project on the island of Borneo in Indonesia. The project protects over 200 thousand acres of tropical peat swamp.
Costs: $21.55 per 1,000kg of CO2
Sustainable Travel InternationalAbout: Carbon offset purchases support the Katingan Mentaya Blue Carbon Project. This project protects and restores 370,000+ acres of peat swamp forest in Borneo.
Costs: $16 per 1,000kg of CO2
Restore the Earth FoundationAbout: Carbon offset purchases support wetland reforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Basin, also known as the North American Amazon.
Costs: Costs are determined after initial contact
EcologiAbout: Carbon offset purchases support two coastal mangrove planting projects in Madagascar and one in Mozambique.
Costs: $6.04 per 1,000kg of CO2
The Carbon Offset CompanyAbout: Carbon offset purchases support their mangrove reforestation blue carbon project located in Casa Partida, Mozambique.
Costs: Costs are determined after initial contact
myclimateAbout: Carbon offset purchases support the Blue Forests for Coral Reef Protection project, which protects over 2,400 acres of mangrove forests in Madagascar.
Costs: $23-$30 per 1,000kg of CO2

How Can Blue Carbon Offsets Help Mitigate Climate Change

Climate change is a severe and long-term consequence of fossil fuel combustion. Blue carbon offsets can help mitigate climate change because they protect our coastal marine ecosystems. The healthier they are, the more CO2 they can absorb from our atmosphere. Atmospheric carbon can, if left untreated, remain there for tens of thousands of years and exacerbate the negative effects of climate change.

How is Climate Change Defined

Climate change is arguably the most severe, long-term global impact of fossil fuel combustion. Every year, approximately 33 billion tons (bt) of CO2 are emitted from burning fossil fuels. The carbon found in fossil fuels reacts with oxygen in the air to produce CO2

“Climate change: changes in the earth’s weather, including changes in temperature, wind patterns and rainfall, especially the increase in the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere that is caused by the increase of particular gasses, especially carbon dioxide.”

Oxford Dictionary

Atmospheric CO2 fuels climate change, which results in global warming. When CO2 and other air pollutants absorb sunlight and solar radiation in the atmosphere, it traps the heat and acts as an insulator for the planet. Since the Industrial Revolution, Earth’s temperature has risen a little more than 1 degree Celsius (C), or 2 degrees Fahrenheit (F). Between 1880-1980 the global temperature rose by 0.07C every 10 years. This rate has more than doubled since 1981, with a current global annual temperature rise of 0.18C, or 0.32F, for every 10 years. 

As outlined in the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, we must cut current GHG emissions by 50% by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050

How Do Carbon Offsets Generally Help Mitigate Climate Change

Levels of carbon in our atmosphere that cause climate change have increased as a result of human emissions since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1750. The global average concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere today registers at over 400 parts per million. Carbon offsets can help prevent these levels from increasing even more.

When you hear the words “carbon offset”, think about the term “compensation”. Essentially, carbon offsets are reductions in GHG emissions that are used to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere

Carbon offsets that meet key criteria and verified project standards, are additional and permanent, and are part of projects that are carried out until the end of their lifespan have the best chance of reducing carbon emissions and therefore reducing climate change. 

When we offset CO2 we also slow the rate of global temperature rise, which in turn minimizes the effects of climate change. 

How Do Blue Carbon Offsets Specifically Help Mitigate Climate Change

Blue carbon offsets specifically help mitigate climate change because they protect coastal and marine ecosystems, which are capable of absorbing more CO2 per acre than rainforests and at a rate 10x greater. The more we reinforce these ecosystems, the more we enable them to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in biomass and soils for long periods of time.

What Are Better Alternatives to Blue Carbon Offsets

If used correctly, blue carbon offsets can provide environmental, economic, and social benefits beyond reducing carbon emissions. They have the potential to instigate meaningful environmental change and begin to reverse some of the effects of climate change. 

However, we can’t let this method be a guilt-free way to reduce carbon emissions. Alone, blue carbon offsets will not be enough to outpace the negative effects of global warming. They must instead be used in conjunction with direct carbon reduction measures.

These reduction measures don’t have to involve drastic changes either. Actions that may seem small can have a big impact because those small changes add up! You can reduce your carbon footprint in three main areas of your life: household, travel, and lifestyle. 

Reduce your household carbon footprint:

Reduce your travel carbon footprint:

  • Walk or bike when possible: The most efficient ways of traveling are walking, bicycling, or taking the train. Using a bike instead of a car can reduce carbon emissions by 75%. These forms of transportation also provide lower levels of air pollution.

Reduce your lifestyle carbon footprint:

  • Switch to renewable energy sources: The six most common types of renewable energy are solar, wind, hydro, tidal, geothermal, and biomass energy. They are a substitute for fossil fuels that can reduce the effects of global warming by limiting global carbon emissions and other pollutants.
  • Recycle: Recycling uses less energy and deposits less waste in landfills. Less manufacturing and transportation energy costs means fewer carbon emissions generated. Less waste in landfills means less CH4 is generated.
  • Eat less meat and dairy: Meat and dairy account for 14.5% of global GHG emissions, with beef and lamb being the most carbon-intensive. Globally, we consume much more meat than is considered sustainable, and switching to a vegan or vegetarian diet could reduce emissions. 
  • Take shorter showers: Approximately 1.2 trillion gallons of water are used each year in the United States just for showering purposes, and showering takes up about 17% of residential water usage. The amount of water consumed and the energy cost of that consumption are directly related. The less water we use the less energy we use. And the less energy we use, the less of a negative impact we have on the environment.

Because blue carbon offsets are an indirect way and not a direct way of reducing carbon emissions, they alone will not be enough to reduce global carbon emissions significantly. Direct measures of emission reductions, such as reducing individual energy use and consumption, are better alternatives to blue carbon offsets. 

Related: Are you interested in learning why reducing your carbon footprint is so important? Check it out in this article here: “4 Main Reasons Why Reducing Your Carbon Footprint Is Important”

Final Thoughts

Blue carbon offsets reinforce our marine carbon sinks, can continue to avoid CO2 emissions after their project life span, preserve biodiversity, help maintain water quality, are relatively cost-effective, and allow us to reduce carbon emissions in ways we wouldn’t be able to accomplish individually. Purchasing blue carbon offsets on the voluntary carbon market can help mitigate climate change because marine ecosystems can absorb more CO2 at faster rates than terrestrial ecosystems. However, blue offsets also often lack permanence, a standardized methodology, and large-scale funding, and do not reduce your own carbon emissions.

For all of the good carbon offsets can instigate, they should not be seen as the only solution to climate change. They are effective at reducing CO2 in the short term, but in the long term, they fail to reduce CO2 enough. When used in conjunction with direct CO2 reduction measures, carbon offsetting can be much more effective. We should reduce our own carbon footprint as much as possible first, and only then choose the most effective carbon offsets.

Stay impactful,

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