How Sustainable Are Lycra® Fabrics? A Life-Cycle Analysis

How Sustainable Are Lycra® Fabrics? A Life-Cycle Analysis

By
Quynh Nguyen

Read Time:17 Minutes

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Lycra is a brand trademark commonly used interchangeably for the material “spandex” itself. The stretchable and elastic Lycra (or spandex) is a very useful material for certain types of clothing (think: yoga pants). And while producing new Lycra® fibers from petroleum has substantial adverse environmental impacts, Lycra® EcoMade fibers are manufactured with biobased and recycled materials. So we had to ask: How sustainable are Lycra® fabrics?

Lycra® fabrics are generally unsustainable. Manufacturing Lycra® fibers from petroleum-based raw materials is energy-intensive, exacerbates the climate crisis, and causes environmental pollution. The microplastics released from washing Lycra® fabrics pose health risks to wildlife and humans.

In this article, we’ll walk you through the life-cycle of Lycra® fabrics used for clothing items. Then, we evaluate its sustainability, potential, and shortfalls. And in the end, we’ll show you tips for buying sustainable products made with Lycra® fabrics.

Here’s How We Assessed the Sustainability of Lycra® Fabrics

Lycra® fabrics are generally considered unsustainable because of the energy-intensive and high-polluting manufacturing processes and the limited options at the end of the fabrics’ life. 

The generic spandex is ranked Class E – the least sustainable fiber class by Made-By Environmental Benchmark for Fibres. Similarly, fossil-based Lycra® fibers would fall into this bottom class on the sustainability ladder. 

It is important to note that under the umbrella brand name Lycra®, there are also fibers, such as the LYCRA® T400® EcoMade, made with recycled materials and plant derivatives. These fibers are made to be more sustainable than conventional Lycra® fibers. 

Sustainable: The ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level | Avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance”

Oxford Dictionary

To understand the sustainability of Lycra® fabrics, we must assess its life-cycle and each stage’s sustainability. This life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a method to evaluate the environmental impacts of products and materials. Over the years, companies have strategically used LCA to research and create more sustainable products. So, let’s have a look at the LCA of Lycra® fabrics!

In this article, we’ll use the cradle-to-grave perspective of the LCA, examining the five stages of the life-cycle of clothes and bedding made with Lycra® fabrics. When applicable, we also look at cradle-to-gate assessments

The life-cycle stages of Lycra® fabricsEach stage’s sustainability
Sourcing of Lycra® fabricsSourcing conventional fossil-based raw materials for Lycra® fabrics is not sustainable. The conventional raw materials used to start making Lycra® fabrics are petroleum-based. Petroleum (or crude oil) is a non-renewable resource. Also, extracting and refining petroleum has energy demand, exacerbates the climate crisis, and pollutes the environment. 
Manufacturing of Lycra® fabricsManufacturing Lycra® fabrics is generally not sustainable. The process is energy-intensive and high-polluting. High energy demand could have serious knock-on ecological impacts when fossil fuels are the main energy sources at manufacturing locations. 
Transporting of Lycra® fabricsTransporting can be a carbon-intensive stage in the life-cycle of items made with Lycra® fabrics because of the emissions associated with transporting and delivering vehicles. Lycra® fabrics typically travel from mines where fossil fuels were extracted to produce raw materials for Lycra® fibers – to processing factories, sorting centers, shops, and consumer’s houses before going to recycling centers or landfills. 
Usage of Lycra® fabricsThe usage of Lycra® fabrics is generally considered unsustainable. Washing Lycra® clothes during the usage phase contributes to the increasingly serious problem of microplastic presence in marine environments. 
End-of-life of Lycra® fabricsThe end-of-life stage for the typical fossil-based Lycra® fabrics is not sustainable because they are not biodegradable. 

We can say that the typical fossil-based Lycra® fabrics are not sustainable. Yet using renewable and recycled raw materials can improve the sustainability of Lycra® fibers

The actual environmental impact of a particular product, like cycling pants or a pair of socks, also depends on other specific factors, including the manufacturing process, and the distance and mode of transportation

Let’s dive deeper into each life-cycle stage and find out how you can buy Lycra® fabrics more sustainably.

How Sustainable Is the Sourcing of Raw Materials for Lycra® Fabrics

Sourcing conventional fossil-based raw materials for Lycra® fabrics is not sustainable. The conventional raw materials used to start making Lycra® fabrics are petroleum-based. Petroleum (or crude oil) is a non-renewable resource. Also, extracting and refining petroleum has energy demand, exacerbates the climate crisis, and pollutes the environment. 

What Raw Materials Are Used for Lycra® Fabrics

Lycra® is a brand name for a class of spandex fabrics. 

Manufacturing spandex starts with polyurethane and polyethylene glycol. In this blend, polyurethane (the prepolymer) is the main factor, accounting for at least 85%

There are various possible raw materials used in making polyurethane, but generally these raw materials are derivatives of petroleum (also called crude oil). This is the route for conventional Lycra® fabrics. 

However, Lycra® EcoMade fibers also contain raw materials derived from renewable resources (such as corn crops) and recycled waste. 

In the following section, we will discuss the environmental impacts of sourcing petroleum as raw materials for conventional Lycra® fibers. 

How Do the Fossil-Based Raw Materials Sourced for Lycra® Fabrics Impact the Environment

Sourcing petroleum-based raw materials for Lycra® fabrics is unsustainable because of the depletion of non-renewable resources, the acceleration of climate change, and the environmental pollution caused by extracting and refining fossil fuels. 

Making Raw Materials for Lycra® Fabrics From Fossil Fuels Depletes Nonrenewable Resources 

Petroleum, or crude oil, is considered a nonrenewable resource. Here are the reasons: 

As petroleum is non-renewable, depending on this fossil fuel for making prepolymer in Lycra® fiber production is not sustainable. 

Making Raw Materials for Lycra® Fabrics From Fossil Fuels Requires Significant Amounts of Energy 

Fossil fuels are formed deep in the crust of the Earth, at depths of about 7,500 feet in the case of petroleum, requiring heavy fuel-guzzling machines for extraction. 

Also, refining fossil fuels, such as petroleum liquid or natural gas, and transforming ethylene are energy-intensive. The “cracking” process involves heating the system to extreme temperatures and cooling the products after cracking. 

Transporting fossil fuels from often far-flung extraction sites, by trucks, ships, tankers, and/or pipelines, to refining and manufacturing facilities is another source of energy usage. 

Making Raw Materials for Lycra® Fabrics From Fossil Fuels Exacerbating The Climate Crisis 

High energy consumption in refining and cracking fossil fuels for nylon’s raw materials leads to elevated global warming impact when manufacturing burns fossil fuels for energy. 

Extracting and Refining Fossil Fuels (For Lycra® Fiber’s Raw Materials) Causes Pollution and Habitat Destruction 

Drilling for oil and gas causes lasting environmental damage, especially when the oil and gas deposits lie under diverse and ecologically important areas, on land and at sea. 

Major environmental impacts of oil and gas extraction are as following: 

  • Air and water pollution: Oil and gas operation releases harmful pollutants into the air and/or discharges dangerous chemicals into the sea. 
  • Habitat degradation and destruction: Building roads to reach drilling sites, pipelines for oil transportation, and offshore oil rigs for exploration degrade and destroy wildlife habitats. 
  • Mass deaths of marine species: Oil spills and refinery chemical discharges kill marine mammals and fish in huge amounts
  • Other disruptions to wildlife: Noise and light pollution caused by drill activities cause stress and further disruption to wildlife animals. 

It is important to note that some varieties of Lycra® fibers are made with bio-derived raw materials and recycled fiber waste. Using such feedstocks avoids digging into the non-renewable reserves of fossil fuels. 

Where Are the Raw Materials for Lycra® Fabrics Usually Sourced From

Though it is always good to know the starting point of your clothes, this is no simple task when it comes to tracking down the origin of petroleum-derived raw materials used in making Lycra® or spandex fibers in general. 

There are two reasons: 

  1. The supply chain of fossil derivatives is extremely complex 
  2. Spandex fabrics are made in factories using various ingredients depending on manufacturers and desired properties

How Sustainable Is the Manufacturing of Lycra® Fabrics

Manufacturing Lycra® fabrics is generally not sustainable. The process is energy-intensive and high-polluting. High energy demand could have serious knock-on ecological impacts when fossil fuels are the main energy sources at manufacturing locations. 

How Sustainably Is Lycra® Fabrics Generally Manufactured

The typical manufacturing process of spandex fabrics, including Lycra®, follows these steps: 

  1. Production of the prepolymer: The prepolymers are the backbone that makes spandex stretchy and elastic. Prepolymer production is a complicated process that, in the simplest sense, connects the three chosen raw materials using heat and pressure. To produce prepolymers, three raw materials are present:
    • macroglycol – molecules providing the shorter soft segments (various kinds of macroglycol can be used)
    • Polymeric diisocyanates – molecules responsible for the longer hard segments formed in the prepolymer (a wide range of isocyanates, including plant-based ones, are applicable) 
    • Chain extenders 
  2. Production of spandex or Lycra® threads from prepolymer: Spandex threads, in general, are produced in four different ways: melt extrusion, reaction spinning, solution dry spinning, and solution wet spinning. 

    The procedures described below are according to the most common method: dry spinning (nearly 90% of all spandex fibers are produced via dry spinning).
    • Chain extension reaction: prepolymer is reacted with diamine acid to create a liquid solution 
    • Diluting: The solution is diluted with a solvent and placed inside a fiber production cell. 
    • Extrusion: The diluted solution is fed through a spinneret to form fibers.
    • Heating: The newly formed fibers are heated within a nitrogen and solvent gas solution, which turns the liquid fibers into solid threads 
    • Twisting: The threads are twisted together to form yarn with the desired thickness. 
    • Finishing: The twisted yarn goes through treatments such as dyeing. 
    • Weaving: After the finishing treatments, Lycra® yarn is ready to be woven, often with other fibers, to create fabrics.

Let’s now deep dive into a few key sustainable issues of this life-cycle stage.

Manufacturing Lycra® Fabrics Is Energy-Intensive 

Manufacturing Lycra® fabrics is highly energy-intensive. The production of prepolymers is an energy-intensive process. Additionally, machines such as spinning and weaving require fuel to operate. 

According to a life-cycle assessment benchmarking study on various textile materials, the CED (Cumulative Energy Demand) of spandex production is relatively high: 380 MJ/ kg of fibers (70 dtex thickness). (Note that Lycra® is a type of spandex) 

According to the same study, spandex production’s energy consumption is: 

  • lower than cotton (about 460 MJ/ kg of fibers) and nylon (about 410 MJ/ kg of fibers) 
  • higher than acrylic (about 360 MJ/ kg of fibers) and polyester (about 355 MJ/ kg of fibers)

High energy consumption leads to elevated global warming impact when manufacturing burns fossil fuels for energy. 

According to a life-cycle assessment benchmarking study on various textile materials, spandex has a carbon footprint of around 17 kg CO2 -eq (per kilogram produced). 

According to the same study, the carbon footprint of spandex is higher than that of acrylic and polyester yet lower than that of nylon and cotton (of the same thickness).

Manufacturing Lycra® Fabrics Is High Polluting 

In general, spandex production uses a lot of chemicals, some of which are linked to respiratory issues or cancer. Wastewater needs proper treatment to avoid releasing toxic substances into the environment and harming wildlife and humans. 

Where Are Lycra® Fabrics Usually Manufactured

China is the world’s largest producer of spandex fabrics, which includes Lycra® varieties, accounting for about 75% of global production of this fiber in 2019. 

One of the main sustainability issues with producing Lycra® fabrics in China is the dependency on fossil fuels for energy generation. According to Our World in Data, China’s renewable energy share in primary energy is less than 15%. Though such a share is higher than the US (another producer of Lycra®), it is relatively low compared to, for example, some Southern European and South American countries. 

Renewable energy (solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biomass) would significantly reduce carbon emissions at this manufacturing stage. 

How Sustainable Is the Transportation of Lycra® Fabrics

Transporting can be a carbon-intensive stage in the life-cycle of items made with Lycra® fabrics because of the emissions associated with transporting and delivering vehicles. Lycra® fabrics typically travel from mines where fossil fuels were extracted to produce raw materials for Lycra® fibers – to processing factories, sorting centers, shops, and consumer’s houses before going to recycling centers or landfills. 

In the life-cycle of Lycra® clothes, transportation typically occurs as below: 

  • From petroleum mines where Lycra®’s raw materials are extracted to Lycra® fiber manufacturing locations
  • From the Lycra® fabrics manufacturing location to the clothing manufacturing location 
  • From the clothing manufacturing location to sorting centers/physical shops 
  • From sorting centers/physical shops to the consumer’s house 
  • From the consumer’s house to the centers for recycling/ disposing
Traveling Distances of Lycra® Fabrics Vary Depending on the Supply Chain

It is not uncommon for Lycra® fabrics to have their supply chain spreading globally, meaning that mining, refining, fiber and fabric processing, and finishing might happen in various towns, countries, or even continents. This supply chain is often very complex and almost impossible to trace.

Here are some scenarios for transporting Lycra® fabrics: 

  • Manufacturers source petroleum mined in the Congo basin and produce the prepolymer in South Korea before selling it to Lycra® manufacturers to be turned into clothes in India. Lycra® clothing and household items are shipped to the US to sell to consumers.
  • Fossil fuels are mined in Alberta, Canada. Polyurethane is made in the US and sold to companies in China to be turned into Lycra® clothes. These clothes are sold worldwide. 

You can reduce the transporting carbon footprint by choosing Lycra® fabrics that travel shorter distances.

The Carbon Footprint of Transporting Lycra® Fabrics Depends Largely on the Vehicle of Transportation 

During its life-cycle, a piece of Lycra® clothing can be transported using various types of vehicles, including:

  • Large container ships 
  • Planes 
  • Freight trains 
  • Long-distance trucks 
  • Short-distance delivering vans 

And these various types of transportation vehicles have different carbon footprint impacts: 

For example, as a consumer, you can choose not to pick the fast delivery option when ordering Lycra® clothing items and accessories to reduce the carbon footprint of your order. 

How Sustainable Is the Usage of Lycra® Fabrics

The usage of Lycra® fabrics is generally considered unsustainable. Washing Lycra® clothes during the usage phase contributes to the increasingly serious problem of microplastic presence in marine environments. 

A major sustainability issue with using Lycra® (or spandex) fabrics is the microplastics released into the environment due to washing the material. 

Plastic-based textiles, including spandex or Lycra®, are responsible for around half a million tons of plastic microfibers shed into the oceans annually as these fabrics are washed. At sea or in other water bodies, these microplastics cause harm to fishes that ingest them and numerous animals (including us humans) further up the food chain. 

However, spandex or Lycra® fabrics are generally durable. It is resistant to damage from sewing and substances such as oils, lotions, and detergents. Also, its ability to stretch and contract means it stays in shape for longer before it needs to be replaced. 

Durability increases the sustainability of a material because you don’t need to replace clothes made with such material too frequently (thus, no need for more resources to make the new one). 

However, Lycra® fabrics tend to require frequent washes because of the material’s low breathability and the tendency to trap moisture and odor

Washing, drying, and ironing (the usage phase) account for a high share of energy consumption in the life cycle of clothing

As a consumer, you can reduce the environmental impact of your usage by maximizing the number of wears between washes, avoid unnecessary hot washes or machining drying. Also, the longer you use a piece of clothing, the lesser the environmental impact of each wear. 

How Sustainable Is the End-of-Life of Lycra® Fabrics

The end-of-life stage for the typical fossil-based Lycra® fabrics is not sustainable because they are not biodegradable. 

Traditional fossil-based Lycra® is not biodegradable: this material could take up to 200 years to degrade completely.

In comparison, natural fibers such as wool or cotton are fully biodegradable. For example, cotton typically takes 11 weeks to decompose. 

Natural fibers like wool or cotton can also be composted to return nutrition to the soil, which is not the case with Lycra®

How Circular Are Products Made of Lycra® Fabrics

In the textile industry, a circular economy is designed to keep products and materials in use for as long as possible, especially through reusing and recycling. It also covers regenerating natural systems that support the industry and reducing polluted waste released into such systems.

“The circular economy is a systems solution framework that tackles global challenges like climate change, biodiversity loss, waste, and pollution.”

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

As a whole, the textile industry is almost linear: 97% of the input are new resource.

One challenge with recycling Lycra® or spandex fiber is that this material is often present in a small percentage of a textile blend (something like this: 96% linen and 4% Lycra®).

Sorting, separating, and deconstructing a blend is often complicated and expensive, removing the incentive to recycle instead of producing new. 

Additionally, Lycra® melts at relatively low temperatures, meaning some contaminants – non-recyclable materials and microbes or bacteria – can survive, hindering the recycling process. 

Lycra® EcoMade fibers are made with pre-consumer recycled materials

How Can You Buy Lycra® Fabrics More Sustainably

There are few environmental and original certifications for unsustainable synthetic materials like Lycra®. However, here are two certificates relevant to some Lycra® fibers: 

  • The Global Recycled Standard (GRS): The Global Recycled Standard (GRS) is an international, voluntary, full product standard that sets requirements for third-party certification of Recycled Content, chain of custody, social and environmental practices, and chemical restrictions. It can be used for any product with more than 20% recycled material. 
  • OEKO-TEX® Standard 100: OEKO-TEX® labels aim to ensure that products pose no risk to human health (i.e. containing banned chemicals). 

Some certifications are signaling clothing manufacturers’’ efforts toward lowered environmental impacts and a circular economy are: 

  • B Corp Certification: The label B Corp is a certification reserved for for-profit companies. Certified holders are assessed on their social and environmental impacts. 
  • Cradle2Cradle certification: Cradle2Cradle provides a standardized approach to material circularity. It assesses whether products have been suitably designed and made with the circular economy in mind covering five critical categories: material health, material reuse, renewable energy and carbon management, water stewardship, and social fairness.

Where to Buy Sustainable Lycra® Fabrics 

We have established throughout the life-cycle assessment that Lycra® fabrics are generally unsustainable. The most significant reasons are: 

  • Manufacturing this synthetic material generally depends on fossil fuels for raw material and for process energy. 
  • Lycra® fiber and fabric production use toxic chemicals, which could have adverse health impacts on exposure (for both factory workers and end users) and pollute the environment. 
  • Washing Lycra® fabrics releases microplastic into marine environments, causing harm to wildlife. 
  • Conventional fossil-based Lycra® fabrics are not biodegradable and, thus, take up space in landfills for a long time (i.e., centuries). 

However, Lycra® EcoMade fibers are varieties of Lycra® made with pre-consumer waste and/or bio-based raw materials. These products are more sustainable. 

As a consumer, you can opt for Lycra® EcoMade when buying Lycra® clothing and household items. 

Why Is It Important to Buy Products Made of More Sustainable Fabrics

It is important to buy products made of more sustainable fabrics because a sustainable textile industry has a lower carbon footprint, helps save natural resources, and is better for forests, animals, and humans. 

Buying Sustainable Fabrics Reduces Your Carbon Footprint 

The production of clothing and footwear is estimated to contribute 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions – more than all international flights and shipping combined. If the fashion industry were a country, it would be the fourth largest emitter of carbon dioxide

One way to reduce the carbon footprint of the clothes you buy is to opt for sustainable fabrics. Sustainable fabrics, which are often made with natural or recycled fibers, have relatively low carbon footprints compared to petroleum-based fabrics. For example, organic cotton made in the US has a carbon footprint of 2.35 kg CO2 (per ton of spun fiber) – a quarter of Lycra®’s carbon footprint

Buying Sustainable Fabrics Reduces the Demand For Natural Resources and Waste Management

The textile industry uses water and land to grow cotton and other fibers. It is estimated that 79 billion cubic meters of water were used for the sector worldwide in 2015. For example, producing a single cotton t-shirt requires as much water as one person drinks for 2.5 years (2,700 liters of fresh water).

Worse yet, the textile economy is vastly more linear than circular: the largest amount of resources used in clothes ended up in landfill (instead of being recycled to remake clothes). According to a report by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation,

  • Less than 3% of materials used in the textile economy in 2015 came from recycled sources.
  • In other words, more than 97% of resources used in making clothes are extracted. 

When clothing items are disposed of within a short period of time – under a year in the case of half of the fast fashion clothes – the natural systems that provide raw materials for fabrics don’t have enough time to recover and regenerate, which could lead to ecological breakdown. 

Sustainable fabrics are made with less water and emissions while lasting longer:

  • Because they are durable, you don’t need to buy new clothes too often. 
  • Thus, you help reduce to pressure to extract more resources for making new items. 

Similarly, making and consuming sustainable fabrics made with recycled materials reduces the demand for virgin materials while helping tackle waste management. 

Buying Sustainable Fabrics Encourages the Sustainable Management of Forests

Sustainable plant-based fabrics are made with raw materials from forests and plantations that are sustainably managed, such as complying with FSC standards

When you buy sustainable plant-based fabrics, you discourage unsustainable forestry practices like illegal logging. You can help reduce deforestation, biodiversity loss, and the effect of climate change. 

Buying Sustainable Fabrics Encourages Fairer Treatment of Animals 

The fashion industry is rife with animal mistreatment when it comes to making animal-based fabrics like cashmere or leather. Every year, billions of animals suffer and die for clothing and accessories.

Buying sustainable vegan alternatives can help to reduce the pressure on raising more and more animals to meet the demand for animal-based fabrics while sacrificing their well-being and lives. 

Suppose you have to buy fabrics made with, for example, leather or wool; make sure you only choose brands committed to cruelty-free products. In that case, you help advocate better treatments for animals raised within the textile industry. 

Using Sustainable Fabrics Encourages Fairer Treatment of Textile Workers 

Recent statistics from UNICEF estimated as many as 170 million child laborers worldwide, many of whom were engaged in some form of work in the textile industry. They don’t get paid minimum wages and often work long hours. 

When you buy sustainable fabrics from brands transparent about the working conditions at their factories, you discourage the use of child labor and help promote better working conditions for textile workers.

Final Thoughts

Lycra® fabric is generally not a very sustainable material. Lycra® fabric production is energy-intensive and high-polluting while depleting the non-renewable fossil reserves. Washing clothes made with Lycra® fabrics contribute to microplastic problems in marine environments. Also, conventional fossil-based Lycra® clothes aren’t biodegradable. 

However, if you choose to buy clothes made with Lycra® fabrics, the following can help it to be more sustainable: 

  1. Buy second-hand, recycled, or upcycled Lycra® clothing and household items.
  2. Opt for the more sustainable Lycra® EcoMade fibers 
  3. While using Lycra® products, maximize the number of wear between washes, and keep the items as long as possible.
  4. At the end of Lycra® products, upcycle the material to extend its usage and arrange for it to be recycled or properly disposed of.

Stay impactful,



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