The Environmental Impact of Grapes: From Farm to Table
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Grapes are a delicious and versatile fruit, with 30% being consumed directly, and the other 70% used to make wine. Originating as a crop around 8,000 years ago, grapes have a long agricultural history but their production can actually have a significant impact on the environment depending on the methods used. So, we had to ask: What is the environmental impact of grapes?
Grapes have a very negative environmental impact. The main contributing factors to this are their use of styrofoam and plastic packaging, high pesticide usage, and high carbon footprint. However, they use less harmful fertilizers than many other fruits and use land very economically.
In this article, we will examine the environmental impact of grapes from several different angles. We will go through the life-cycle of grapes, detailing their impact on the environment from growth to distribution to your plate to waste management. We will then compare the environmental impact of grapes to that of other fruits. And, finally, we’ll share some tips with you on how you can reduce your own environmental impact and offset your own carbon emissions – both for your personal life and grape-related.
Here’s How We Assessed the Environmental Impact of Grapes
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is one of the ways we measure the potential environmental effects of our actions, like the consumption of grapes. It is a holistic assessment based on the environmental changes associated with our consumption. Those are changes in our environment that can have adverse effects on the air, land, water, fish, and wildlife or the inhabitants of the ecosystem.
“Environmental Impact: the effect that the activities of people and businesses have on the environment”Cambridge Dictionary
Basically, all goods and services you buy – including grapes – leave an impact on our environment. When it comes to food in general, and grapes in specific, the following are key factors:
- Land requirements: Large parts of the world that were once covered by forests and wildlands are now used for agriculture. 10 million hectares of forest are destroyed annually and 50% of the world’s habitable land is now used for agriculture. This loss of natural habitat has been the main driver for reducing the world’s biodiversity.
- Water footprint: 70% of global freshwater is now used for agricultural purposes. By assessing the water footprint of a particular food, we can determine how our limited freshwater resources are being consumed and polluted.
- Pesticide and fertilizer usage: Pesticides and fertilizers provide a range of agricultural benefits. However, numerous studies link pesticides and fertilizers to serious effects on human health, along with disruptions to vital ecosystems and the spread of aquatic dead zones.
- Carbon footprint: The carbon footprint is one of the ways we measure the effects of our human-induced global climate change. Today, food production accounts for over a quarter (26%) of global greenhouse gas emissions.
- Waste generation: Food and its packaging account for almost 45% of the materials landfilled in the US alone. And packaging sent to landfills, especially when made from plastics, does not degrade quickly or, in some cases, at all.
To understand the overall environmental impact of grapes, we must assess each of their key factors. This Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a tool originally developed to identify the environmental impacts of a project prior to decision-making and also helps us to evaluate the environmental impacts of grapes, from farm to table.
Here’s the Overall Environmental Impact of Grapes
The overall environmental impact of grapes is fairly high. This is mainly caused by land encroachment, irrigation requirements, the use of plastic and styrofoam packaging, and a high carbon footprint.
There are some positive qualities grapes have in terms of their environmental impact. For example, they have very economical land usage, and they don’t use fertilizers that are known to have a significantly negative impact on the environment, such as nitrogen fertilizer. However, other aspects of their processes engage in environmentally-damaging practices.
So, let’s have a look at the environmental impact of each key factor of grapes!
|Key Assessment Factors||Environmental Impact|
|Land requirements for grapes||Grapes’ land requirements are fairly low. However, grape vineyards are vulnerable to soil erosion and have impacted California’s wildlife significantly, meaning their environmental impact is still very negative at this stage.|
|Water footprint of grapes||Grapes have a very low water requirement of 25–30 inches of water per year. However, because of where they grow, they still need some irrigation. As a result, their water footprint is moderately negative.|
|Agrochemical usage for grapes||Grapes’ agrochemical usage is moderate. The pesticides they use can be significantly harmful to the environment. However, their fertilizers are more benign.|
|Carbon footprint of grapes||Grapes have a very high carbon footprint of 0.64 kg (1.42 lbs) of CO2e per pound of grapes. This is mainly because of their irrigation, high pesticide use, refrigeration requirements during transportation, and high levels of packaging. Their footprint is especially high compared to other fruits.|
|Waste generation of grapes||Grapes’ waste generation is very high. This is because they use harmful materials like styrofoam and plastic, which are very hard to recycle.|
These are the overall summaries, but there is a lot more to the story. In the next few sections, we will dive deeper into each stage to illustrate to you all the important aspects of grapes’ environmental impact.
What Are the Land Requirements for Grapes
Grapes’ land requirements are fairly low. However, grape vineyards are vulnerable to soil erosion and have impacted California’s wildlife significantly, meaning their environmental impact is still very negative at this stage.
Growing grapes has a lot of variables that contribute to their environmental impact. The amount of land they use, the way in which they grow, and the amount of time they take to grow will all contribute to their environmental impact.
How do the land requirements of grapes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the land usage of grapes: Grapes can yield between 20 and 50 tons per hectare. This is an above-average yield among fruits and so their land yield does not contribute significantly to their environmental impact.
- Where and how are grapes grown: Most grapes are grown in California. Grapes are grown on vines in farms known as vineyards. Remarkably, grape vines can actually sequester carbon through photosynthesis. Carbon sequestration is the process wherein certain plants capture carbon from the atmosphere and store it in the ground. This helps to offset part of grapes’ carbon footprint and thus their environmental impact.
- How does the growing of grapes affect soil fertility and erosion: Unfortunately, grape vineyards have some of the highest rates of soil erosion among fruits. Soil erosion has very serious environmental consequences, including water pollution, and wildlife loss. Therefore, the fact that vineyards cause a serious amount of soil erosion means that their environmental impact is very negative at this stage.
- How does the grapes industry affect the loss of habitable land: Grapes, especially wine grapes, use a significant amount of land in California. Their land use has been growing over the years and as a result has been encroaching significantly on California’s natural landscape.
- How does the grapes industry affect wildlife and biodiversity: The conversion of California’s natural spaces due to agriculture has led to a significant uptick in habitat loss. Habitat loss is the main cause of endangered species around the world.
In short, the grape industry contributes significantly to soil erosion and habitat loss in California. So, they have a very negative impact on the environment, despite their economic land yield and carbon sequestering properties.
What Is the Water Footprint of Grapes
Grapes have a very low water requirement of 25–30 inches of water per year. However, because of where they grow, they still need some irrigation. As a result, their water footprint is moderately negative.
Water usage is one of the most important factors in the environmental impact of a fruit. The amount of water used, as well as the way they affect the water sources around them, are all major contributing factors. Here, we will look at these different angles to grapes’ water impact.
How does the water footprint of grapes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the overall water usage of grapes: Grapes need around 25–30 inches of water per year. This is a very low water requirement compared to other fruits. For example, pears need around 50 inches per year, and watermelons require up to 100 inches. Therefore, grapes’ water usage does not contribute significantly to their environmental impact.
- What is the green water footprint of grapes: The green water footprint is the amount of water from precipitation stored in the soil and used by plants for growth. Most American-consumed grapes grow in California, which only gets around 22 inches of rain per year. This is not quite enough rainfall to cover grapes’ water requirement, and so most of the rainfall in the area will be directed towards grape production. This means that their green water footprint is high.
- What is the blue water footprint of grapes: The blue water footprint is the amount of water sourced from surface (such as rivers or lakes) or groundwater resources. Because California’s annual rainfall is not quite high enough to cover grapes’ water requirements, they will need a small amount of irrigation. This means that their blue water footprint is moderate.
- What is the gray water footprint of grapes: The gray water footprint is the amount of freshwater required to clean up water pollution to meet certain quality standards. Essentially, it’s the amount of water needed to make polluted water clean enough to be safe and healthy for humans and the environment. Grapes have exceptionally high pesticide rates. This means that they need a lot of water to clean up their pesticide residue and so their gray water footprint is high.
- How does the grape industry affect freshwater and ocean pollution: Pesticides have been identified as a major polluter of oceans and other water sources. Therefore, the fact that grapes use a significant amount of pesticides heightens their water pollution. Irrigation also has a negative environmental impact, but because grapes only use a small amount of irrigation, this is not as severe an impact.
In short, grapes’ high use of pesticides, but low use of irrigation means that their environmental impact is moderately negative at this stage.
What Is the Agrochemical Usage for Grapes
Grapes’ agrochemical usage is moderate. The pesticides they use can be significantly harmful to the environment. However, their fertilizers are more benign.
Pesticides and fertilizers are agrochemicals that can have a significant impact on the environment. They both require resources to create as well as have effects on the life around them. Here, we will look at how grapes’ pesticide and fertilizer rates affect their environmental impact.
How does the agrochemical usage of grapes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the pesticide usage of grapes: Grapes have very high pesticide usage, with around 87% of sampled fruit containing pesticides. Pesticides can cause many kinds of environmental damage, including poisoning surrounding wildlife. Leakages can also get into soil and groundwater. As a result, grapes have a very negative environmental impact at this stage.
- What is the fertilizer usage of grapes: Grapes use primarily potassium fertilizer. The good news is that potassium fertilizers have been found to have a very small environmental impact. Therefore, grapes’ environmental impact is minimal at this stage.
- Are there any known issues connected to the agrichemical usage for grapes: In a 2021 study, 61% of the 122 pesticides that grapes were tested for were considered “highly hazardous.” Many are linked with various cancers, endocrine disruption, and even birth defects. These issues show that the pesticides found on grapes can be harmful to humans as well as the environment.
In short, the amount and types of pesticides that grapes use are highly damaging to the environment, though their fertilizer usage is less harmful. Overall, this means that their agrochemical environmental impact is moderately negative.
What Is the Carbon Footprint of Grapes
Grapes have a very high carbon footprint of 0.64 kg (1.42 lbs) of CO2e per pound of grapes. This is mainly because of their irrigation, high pesticide use, refrigeration requirements during transportation, and high levels of packaging. Their footprint is especially high compared to other fruits.
Carbon footprint is one aspect of the overall environmental impact of a fruit. It essentially measures how much carbon or other greenhouse gasses the production of grapes emits into the atmosphere. Emissions from product manufacturing, irrigation, transportation fuel, and landfills all add up to create the overall carbon footprint of a fruit. Let’s see how the carbon footprint of grapes breaks down and contributes to their environmental impact.
How does the carbon footprint of grapes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the overall carbon footprint of grapes: The overall carbon footprint of grapes is 0.64 kg (1.42 lbs) of CO2e per pound of grapes. This means that for every pound of grapes produced, 0.64kg of carbon is released into the atmosphere. That’s the equivalent of driving a car over a mile and a half! Grapes’ carbon footprint is significantly higher than most fruits.
- What are the main contributors to the carbon footprint of grapes: The main contributing factors to grapes’ carbon footprint are their irrigation requirements, pesticide use, and plastic packaging.
- Which life-cycle stage of grapes has the highest carbon footprint: The life cycle stage of grapes that has the highest carbon footprint is waste. This is because grapes use plastic and styrofoam packaging which have very high emissions.
In short, though grapes have some positive qualities, they create a very high amount of carbon emissions, much higher than the average fruit.
What Is the Waste Generation of Grapes
Grapes’ waste generation is very high. This is because they use harmful materials like styrofoam and plastic, which are very hard to recycle.
When fruit waste, either packaging or organic materials, is disposed of, it can have a major impact on the environment. Whether it’s damaging wildlife, getting into oceans, emitting methane, or dissolving into microplastics that contaminate groundwater, all these materials have their part to play. In this section, we will look at how grapes’ waste affects the environment.
How does the waste generation of grapes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the packaging of grapes: Grapes are packaged in either cardboard boxes, styrofoam boxes, or plastic bags and containers. Though cardboard is one of the more environmentally-friendly types of packaging, it still contributes to deforestation. Styrofoam, on the other hand, has a very negative environmental impact during its production stage. Plastic also has a negative environmental impact during its production stage. As a result, it takes a very negative toll on the environment to produce all the different kinds of grape packaging.
- How is the packaging of grapes disposed of: Cardboard has a very high recycling rate at 89%. Plastic, however, has a very low recycling rate of 9% and styrofoam has an even lower recycling rate at less than 1%. This means that most plastic and styrofoam grape packaging is ending up in landfills. Landfills cause significant environmental damage, including land clearance and chemical pollution. Furthermore, styrofoam and plastic can both take up to 500 years to decompose. As a result, disposing of grape packaging has an extremely negative environmental impact.
- How are grapes disposed of: Grapes typically come on vines that aren’t eaten. However, some grapes are sold loose. For those that come on vines, they can technically be composted. However, only 4% of food waste is actually composted. This means that for grapes sold with vines, a significant amount will end up in landfills. What’s worse is that food waste is particularly harmful to the environment as it releases a greenhouse gas called methane when it is put in landfills.
In short, the fact that grapes use both plastic and styrofoam packaging, some of the most harmful packaging materials out there, means that their environmental impact is very negative at this stage.
What Have Been Historical Environmental Issues Connected to the Grapes Industry
The grapes industry has historically had a fairly negative impact on the environment, mainly due to their impact on California land loss and water pollution.
All fruits have had a complex road toward global distribution. They originate in one part of the world and often travel far to end up in your local supermarket. From farm to table, some of our favorite fruits have racked up some serious environmental damage along the way. Whether it’s deforestation to meet demand, water pollution, or disruption of wildlife, most fruits have left a path of destruction. Let’s see how grapes have fared throughout history.
What have been the key environmental issues of the grapes industry?
- How much land has been lost because of grape production: There have been several booms in California’s grape market that have affected their land usage. One particularly large boom happened between 1990 and 1997 when California lost around 4500 hectares of land to grape farming, which is around the size of San Clemente. That number has since ballooned to around 120,000 hectares by 2021, which is four times the size of San Francisco. This huge amount of land has caused significant loss for the natural landscape of California.
- Which wildlife species have been negatively impacted or displaced because of grape production: California’s wildlife has seen significant encroachment in the past decades due to agricultural expansion. This has led to some of California’s species becoming endangered. Some of the most endangered species in the state are the gray wolf, the giant kangaroo rat, and the California condor. Excessive vineyard production has greatly impacted their living situations.
- Have water sources and soil been contaminated because of grape production: Grapes’ use of excessive pesticides has had a major impact on water sources. As of 2021, around 10% of surface water and 2% of groundwater contained a significant amount of pesticides. From this perspective, grapes’ high pesticide usage has had a very damaging impact on water sources.
In short, grape agriculture’s infringement on California wildlife, as well as their high pesticide usage means that their impact on the environment has historically been negative.
What Is the Overall Environmental Impact of Food and Agriculture
Food production in general has a high environmental impact. Everything from the amount of land used to the energy involved in irrigation to its effect on plant and animal biodiversity can be a factor in this. In the chart below, you can see how food production is one of the biggest influences on these areas of the environment.
Agriculture alone accounts for over a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions, while using half of the world’s habitable land and 70% of the global freshwater withdrawals. Agriculture also causes 78% of the global ocean and freshwater pollution.
Livestock accounts for the vast majority of non-human mammal and bird biomass. Mammal livestock outweighs wild mammals by a factor of 15-to-1, and poultry livestock outweighs wild birds by a factor of more than 3-to-1.
These statistics highlight the need for sustainable and responsible practices in food production to reduce its impact on the environment. And the need for us to shift toward more environmentally-friendly foods.
How Can You Reduce Your Environmental Impact and Offset Your Personal Carbon Footprint
There are a few things you can do to mitigate some of the negative environmental effects of consuming grapes, while still enjoying them. You can also consider offsetting your personal and grape-related carbon emissions, which work to remove carbon emissions elsewhere that are then attributed to you. Here, we will walk you through how to accomplish both of these things.
How Can You Reduce Your Environmental Impact When Shopping for Grapes
In this section, we give you a short list of ways you can reduce the negative environmental effects of grapes, based on those parts of the life-cycle of grapes that would otherwise most negatively impact the environment:
- Buy grapes without packaging: Grapes’ use of styrofoam and plastic packaging is one of the biggest contributors to their negative environmental impact. If you buy grapes with less packaging, paper packaging, or no packaging at all, you will be helping to mitigate a significant amount of the negative environmental impacts of grapes.
- Buy organic grapes: Grapes have very high pesticide usage compared to other fruits. Organic farms, however, generally avoid high amounts of chemical pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers and so they are good to support if you want to reduce your pesticide and fertilizer impact.
- Compost and recycle: When grapes’ packaging and organic waste ends up in landfills, it can cause a significant amount of damage. As a result, you want to make sure that you dispose of this waste in a way that will avoid landfills. Short or reducing waste in the first place, composting organic waste and recycling as much packaging as you can is a great way to do that.
Following some of these methods can really help you to cut down on your environmental impact of eating grapes. None of these will completely eradicate these negative impacts, since there are always effects that may be outside of your control. But some reduction is always better than nothing!
Which Organizations Can You Support to Help Alleviate Your Environmental Impact
While grapes can cause a wide range of environmental damage, there are also some organizations that help you reduce parts of your impact that would otherwise be outside of your control. These organizations are working hard to prevent and reverse damage to the environment caused by industries like grape agriculture.
In the table below are some of the best environmental charities that work in the areas where grapes production has affected the environment – and beyond:
Though it is helpful to reduce the environmental impact of your personal grapes consumption, supporting these organizations takes your positive impact a step further. You will be reaching far beyond your own consumption impacts and helping to build a better world for everyone!
How Can You Offset Your Personal Carbon Footprint
The carbon footprint is a key part of your environmental impact. And it is one of the ways we measure the effects of our human-induced global climate change. Yes, even from eating grapes!
“Carbon footprint: the amount of greenhouse gasses and specifically carbon dioxide emitted by something (such as a person’s activities or a product’s manufacture and transport) during a given period”Merriam Webster
Basically, it is the amount of carbon emitted by you as an individual or an organization providing you with goods and services – including grapes:
- This includes GHG emissions from producing the products that we use and foods that we eat (e.g., power plants, factories or farms, and landfills)
- GHG emissions from fuel that we burn directly or indirectly (e.g., logistics and transportation, cooling or heating facilities),
- as well as the GHG emissions attributed to how we consume these products and foods.
Carbon offsets are reductions in carbon emissions that are used to compensate for carbon emissions occurring elsewhere – for example for the carbon emissions that are associated with grapes. They are measured in tons of CO2 equivalents and are bought and sold through international brokers, online retailers, and trading platforms on what is known as the global carbon offset market.
“Carbon Offset: a way for a company or person to reduce the level of carbon dioxide for which they are responsible by paying money to a company that works to reduce the total amount produced in the world, for example by planting trees”Oxford Dictionary
In terms of grapes – and indeed all food types – there will always be a carbon footprint, because of the resources it takes to get your food from farms to the place where you’ll eventually eat them. And while there are ways to reduce your carbon footprint when shopping for grapes, carbon offsets would be a way to reduce your CO2e emissions all the way down to net zero (or even to become climate positive).
However, when you purchase carbon offsets, it’s important that they actually make a difference in offsetting (aka reducing) total carbon emissions. To achieve that, the following are key criteria:
- Carbon offset projects have to be effective (different projects have different effectiveness rates)
- Carbon offset projects have to be additional
- Carbon offset projects have to be permanent
- The claims from carbon offset projects have to be verifiable
To find the best carbon offsets for you personally, check out our full guide on the best carbon offsets for individuals, where you’ll also learn more about how these carbon offset projects work, what their respective offsetting costs are, and what your best way would be to offset your own carbon emissions.
Grapes are certainly not environmental heroes. They have very high carbon footprints, use a significant amount of pesticides, and use some of the most harmful types of packaging. However, there are still plenty of things that you can do to mitigate the damage that comes from consuming grapes. Recycling and reducing your grape packaging, supporting organic grape farms, and supporting organizations that help tackle the bigger issues of the agricultural sector can all help you to reduce your harm and be a more environmentally-friendly grape consumer!
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- IPM Missouri: Grapes: A Brief History
- EPA: Agriculture Sources and Solutions
- EPA: Reducing Food Waste
- FoodPrint: The Environmental Impact of Food Packaging
- Wine Grape Growing: Water Requirements and Quality
- Impactful Ninja: What is the Carbon Footprint of Grapes
- Wikifarmer: Grape Yield Per Hectare and Acre
- Extension: Table Grape Production
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- Lodi Growers: Vineyard Management
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- Impactful Ninja: Why is a Carbon Footprint Bad for the Environment
- MDPI: Soil Erosion as an Environmental Concern in Vineyards
- WWF: Soil Erosion and Degradation
- UCANR: Mapping Vineyard Expansion
- National Geographic: Endangered Species
- Impactful Ninja: What is the Carbon Footprint of Pears
- Impactful Ninja: What is the Carbon Footprint of Watermelons
- Water Footprint: What is a Water Footprint
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- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that fight to protect our environment
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities for reforestation
- Impactful Ninja: Best wildlife conservation charities
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities for protecting the Amazon rainforest
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that protect our national parks
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that fight for clean water
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that help conserve our rivers
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities to save our oceans
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that help farmers
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities for helping farm animals
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities for climate change
- Impactful Ninja: Best carbon offsets for individuals
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that fight to reduce food waste
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that fight to end plastic pollution
- Impactful Ninja: Why Is a Carbon Footprint Bad for the Environment
- Impactful Ninja: Best Carbon Offsets for Individuals