The Environmental Impact of Limes: From Farm to Table
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Hey fellow impactful ninja ? You may have noticed that Impactful Ninja is all about providing helpful information to make a positive impact on the world and society. And that we love to link back to where we found all the information for each of our posts. Most of these links are informational-based for you to check out their primary sources with one click. But some of these links are so-called "affiliate links" to products that we recommend. First and foremost, because we believe that they add value to you. For example, when we wrote a post about the environmental impact of long showers, we came across an EPA recommendation to use WaterSense showerheads. So we linked to where you can find them. Or, for many of our posts, we also link to our favorite books on that topic so that you can get a much more holistic overview than one single blog post could provide. And when there is an affiliate program for these products, we sign up for it. For example, as Amazon Associates, we earn from qualifying purchases. First, and most importantly, we still only recommend products that we believe add value for you. When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission - but at no additional costs to you. And when you buy something through a link that is not an affiliate link, we won’t receive any commission but we’ll still be happy to have helped you. When we find products that we believe add value to you and the seller has an affiliate program, we sign up for it. When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission (at no extra costs to you). And at this point in time, all money is reinvested in sharing the most helpful content with you. This includes all operating costs for running this site and the content creation itself. You may have noticed by the way Impactful Ninja is operated that money is not the driving factor behind it. It is a passion project of mine and I love to share helpful information with you to make a positive impact on the world and society. However, it's a project in that I invest a lot of time and also quite some money. Eventually, my dream is to one day turn this passion project into my full-time job and provide even more helpful information. But that's still a long time to go. Stay impactful,
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Hey fellow impactful ninja ?
You may have noticed that Impactful Ninja is all about providing helpful information to make a positive impact on the world and society. And that we love to link back to where we found all the information for each of our posts.
Most of these links are informational-based for you to check out their primary sources with one click.
But some of these links are so-called "affiliate links" to products that we recommend.
First and foremost, because we believe that they add value to you. For example, when we wrote a post about the environmental impact of long showers, we came across an EPA recommendation to use WaterSense showerheads. So we linked to where you can find them. Or, for many of our posts, we also link to our favorite books on that topic so that you can get a much more holistic overview than one single blog post could provide.
And when there is an affiliate program for these products, we sign up for it. For example, as Amazon Associates, we earn from qualifying purchases.
First, and most importantly, we still only recommend products that we believe add value for you.
When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission - but at no additional costs to you.
And when you buy something through a link that is not an affiliate link, we won’t receive any commission but we’ll still be happy to have helped you.
When we find products that we believe add value to you and the seller has an affiliate program, we sign up for it.
When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission (at no extra costs to you).
And at this point in time, all money is reinvested in sharing the most helpful content with you. This includes all operating costs for running this site and the content creation itself.
You may have noticed by the way Impactful Ninja is operated that money is not the driving factor behind it. It is a passion project of mine and I love to share helpful information with you to make a positive impact on the world and society. However, it's a project in that I invest a lot of time and also quite some money.
Eventually, my dream is to one day turn this passion project into my full-time job and provide even more helpful information. But that's still a long time to go.
Limes are a very popular fruit with over 23.5 million tons produced every single year. They are commonly used in desserts like key lime pie and even classic cocktails. Limes pack a health punch too, containing a healthy amount of vitamin C and antioxidants. But limes can also negatively impact the environment through their farming and disposal practices. So we had to ask: What is the environmental impact of limes?
Limes have a fairly negative impact on the environment. They use nitrogen fertilizers, excessive pesticides, and plastic packaging, as well as contribute to deforestation and groundwater pollution.
In this article, we will examine the environmental impact of limes from several different angles. We will go through the life-cycle of limes, detailing their impact on the environment from growth to distribution to your plate to waste management. We will then compare the environmental impact of limes to that of other fruits. And, finally, we’ll share some tips with you on how you can reduce your own environmental impact and offset your own carbon emissions – both for your personal life and limes-related.
Here’s How We Assessed the Environmental Impact of Limes
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is one of the ways we measure the potential environmental effects of our actions, like the consumption of limes. It is a holistic assessment based on the environmental changes associated with our consumption. Those are changes in our environment that can have adverse effects on the air, land, water, fish, and wildlife or the inhabitants of the ecosystem.
“Environmental Impact: the effect that the activities of people and businesses have on the environment”Cambridge Dictionary
Basically, all goods and services you buy – including limes – leave an impact on our environment. When it comes to food in general, and limes in specific, the following are key factors:
- Land requirements: Large parts of the world that were once covered by forests and wildlands are now used for agriculture. 10 million hectares of forest are destroyed annually and 50% of the world’s habitable land is now used for agriculture. This loss of natural habitat has been the main driver for reducing the world’s biodiversity.
- Water footprint: 70% of global freshwater is now used for agricultural purposes. By assessing the water footprint of a particular food, we can determine how our limited freshwater resources are being consumed and polluted.
- Pesticide and fertilizer usage: Pesticides and fertilizers provide a range of agricultural benefits. However, numerous studies link pesticides and fertilizers to serious effects on human health, along with disruptions to vital ecosystems and the spread of aquatic dead zones.
- Carbon footprint: The carbon footprint is one of the ways we measure the effects of our human-induced global climate change. Today, food production accounts for over a quarter (26%) of global greenhouse gas emissions.
- Waste generation: Food and its packaging account for almost 45% of the materials landfilled in the US alone. And packaging sent to landfills, especially when made from plastics, does not degrade quickly or, in some cases, at all.
To understand the overall environmental impact of limes, we must assess each of their key factors. This Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a tool originally developed to identify the environmental impacts of a project prior to decision-making and also helps us to evaluate the environmental impacts of limes, from farm to table.
Here’s the Overall Environmental Impact of Limes
Overall, limes have a fairly negative environmental impact. The main factors that contribute to this are their agrochemical use (particularly nitrogen fertilizer), their plastic packaging, and their irrigation requirements.
Limes have a lot going for them in terms of environmental impact. They have a low carbon footprint, don’t require too much land to grow, and have even been used in land renewal projects. However, they also have many qualities that are harmful to the environment as well.
So, let’s have a look at the environmental impact of each key factor of limes!
|Key Assessment Factors||Environmental Impact|
|Land requirements for limes||Limes’ land requirements are moderate. However, their participation in rainforest destruction is harmful to the environment.|
|Water footprint of limes||Limes have a moderate water requirement of 50 inches per year. However, the regions they grow in have low rainfall. So, they require a significant amount of irrigation. Furthermore, their pesticide use is damaging to surrounding water sources.|
|Agrochemical usage for limes||Limes’ agrochemical usage is very high. They use considerable pesticides, as well as nitrogen fertilizer, which is very damaging to the environment.|
|Carbon footprint of limes||The carbon footprint of limes is low at 0.18kg (0.39lb) of CO2e per pound of limes. This is mainly caused by their irrigation requirements, high use of pesticides, plastic packaging, mechanized harvesting, and refrigerated transportation from Mexico.|
|Waste generation of limes||Limes’ waste generation is fairly high. This is because they use both plastic and cardboard packaging and have low composting rates.|
These are the overall summaries, but there is a lot more to the story. In the next few sections, we will dive deeper into each stage to illustrate to you all the important aspects of limes’ environmental impact.
What Are the Land Requirements for Limes
Limes’ land requirements are moderate. However, their participation in rainforest destruction is harmful to the environment.
Growing limes has a lot of variables that contribute to their environmental impact. The amount of land they use, the way in which they grow, and the amount of time they take to grow will all contribute to their environmental impact.
How do the land requirements of limes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the land usage of limes: Limes yield around 25 tons per hectare. This is a fairly average yield amongst fruits. For example, pineapples yield up to 100 tons per hectare, whereas watermelons yield around 2–3 tons per hectare.
- Where and how are limes grown: Limes are mainly produced in India, Mexico, and Brazil. They are grown on trees in orchards. Trees in general are excellent at carbon sequestering, a process by which plants capture carbon from the atmosphere and trap it in the ground. This lowers their carbon footprint and thus lessens their environmental impact. However, limes are also grown in monocultures. This growing method is a growing threat to biodiversity and thus negatively damages the environment.
- How does the growing of limes affect soil fertility and erosion: Citrus orchards have been identified as major contributors to soil erosion. A 2021 study found that citrus orchards had an 80% chance of disrupting soil beyond legal limits. Because of this high chance of eroding soil, lime agriculture has a significantly negative impact on the environment in this stage.
- How does the limes industry affect the loss of habitable land: Citrus production is often carried out on former rainforest land, especially in Brazil. Using rainforest land for agriculture contributes to deforestation and often depletes the soil of nutrients. Many rainforest citrus farms are transformed into cattle fields after a few years because the soil becomes too barren to be suitable for agriculture. Loss of habitable and fertile land is a significant aspect of limes’ negative environmental impact.
- How does the limes industry affect wildlife and biodiversity: Monoculture farming has a devastating effect on biodiversity. Planting only one crop reduces pollination seasons and starves pollinators like bees and butterflies. This affects the whole food chain. Deforestation in places like the rainforest also leads to habitat loss for local wildlife. Agriculture is the leading cause of habitat loss and habitat loss is the leading cause of endangered species. Many aspects of lime and other citrus agriculture negatively impacts wildlife.
In short, limes’ tendency to grow on deforested rainforest lands has a devastating impact on biodiversity, land fertility, and wildlife.
What Is the Water Footprint of Limes
Limes have a moderate water requirement of 50 inches per year. However, the regions they grow in have low rainfall. So, they require a significant amount of irrigation. Furthermore, their pesticide use is damaging to surrounding water sources.
Water usage is one of the most important factors in the environmental impact of a fruit. The amount of water used, as well as the way they affect the water sources around them, are all major contributing factors. Here, we will look at these different angles to limes’ water impact.
How does the water footprint of limes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the overall water usage of limes: Limes need around 50 inches of water a year. This water requirement is fairly low-average amongst fruits. For example, some fruits like watermelons require up to 100 inches of water per year.
- What is the green water footprint of limes: The green water footprint is the amount of water from precipitation stored in the soil and used by plants for growth. Most limes consumed in the US come from Mexico. Mexico only gets around 28 inches of rain per year. This means that limes will be getting around half of their water requirements from irrigation.
- What is the blue water footprint of limes: The blue water footprint is the amount of water sourced from surface (such as rivers or lakes) or groundwater resources. Since the average yearly rainfall of Mexico nowhere near covers limes’ water requirements, limes typically need irrigation. Irrigation can have a harmful impact on the surrounding area, often leading to groundwater imbalances and sometimes oversalinating nearby lands.
- What is the gray water footprint of limes: The gray water footprint is the amount of freshwater required to clean up water pollution to meet certain quality standards. Essentially, it’s the amount of water needed to make polluted water clean enough to be safe and healthy for humans and the environment. Limes have high agrochemical usage. This means that a significant amount of water needs to be used in order to clean up their pesticide residues.
- How does the limes industry affect freshwater and ocean pollution: Because limes’ use of agrochemicals is generally high, they have a very negative impact on waterways. These chemicals easily get into groundwater and freshwater sources, and in turn poison many different types of aquatic life.
In short, limes’ high irrigation requirements, as well as their high pesticide usage means that they have a very high water footprint.
What Is the Agrochemical Usage for Limes
Limes’ agrochemical usage is very high. They use considerable pesticides, as well as nitrogen fertilizer, which is very damaging to the environment.
Pesticides and fertilizers are agrochemicals that can have a significant impact on the environment. They both require resources to create as well as have effects on the life around them. Here, we will look at how limes’ pesticide and fertilizer rates affect their environmental impact.
How does the agrochemical usage of limes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the pesticide usage of limes: Limes use a significant amount of pesticides, particularly fungicides. Pesticides not only have adverse effects on groundwater, but they can also impact wildlife, insect populations, and soil microbes. For this reason, limes’ environmental impact is very negative in this area.
- What is the fertilizer usage of limes: Limes and other fruits tend to be fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Potassium has a fairly minimal environmental impact. Nitrogen fertilizers, however, have very negative environmental impacts, such as release of nitrous oxide and damage to waterways.
- Are there any known issues connected to the agrochemical usage for limes: The particular fungicides used by limes and many other citrus fruits have been known to affect hormones. These chemicals have also been identified as carcinogens and can be harmful to humans and animals alike. Nitrogen fertilizer causes a number of environmental problems, such as promoting invasive algae growth which damages biodiversity.
In short, limes’ high pesticide use, as well as their need for harmful nitrogen fertilizers means that their agrochemical impact is very negative.
What Is the Carbon Footprint of Limes
The carbon footprint of limes is low at 0.18kg (0.39lb) of CO2e per pound of limes. This is mainly caused by their irrigation requirements, high use of pesticides, plastic packaging, mechanized harvesting, and refrigerated transportation from Mexico.
Carbon footprint is one aspect of the overall environmental impact of a fruit. It essentially measures how much carbon or other greenhouse gasses the production of limes emits into the atmosphere. Emissions from product manufacturing, irrigation, transportation fuel, and landfills all add up to create the overall carbon footprint of a fruit. Let’s see how the carbon footprint of limes breaks down and contributes to their environmental impact.
How does the carbon footprint of limes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the overall carbon footprint of limes: The overall carbon footprint of limes is 0.18kg (0.39lb) of CO2e per pound of limes. This means that for every pound of limes produced, 0.18kg of carbon is released into the atmosphere. This is a fairly low carbon footprint compared with other fruits.
- What are the main contributors to the carbon footprint of limes: The main factors that contribute to this are the use of pesticides and irrigation, as well as refrigerated transportation, plastic packaging, and low composting rates.
- Which life-cycle stage of limes has the highest carbon footprint: The stage that contributes the most to limes’ carbon footprint is growth. This is because of the significant amount of resources limes need at this stage, caused by their long growth duration, irrigation requirements, and high pesticide use. Both pesticides and irrigation have high carbon footprints.
In short, despite some of the carbon-emitting resources allocated to limes, they still maintain a below-average carbon footprint amongst fruits.
What Is the Waste Generation of Limes
Limes’ waste generation is fairly high. This is because they use both plastic and cardboard packaging and have low composting rates.
When fruit waste, either packaging or organic materials, is disposed of, it can have a major impact on the environment. Whether it’s damaging wildlife, getting into oceans, emitting methane, or dissolving into microplastics that contaminate groundwater, all these materials have their part to play. In this section, we will look at how limes’ waste affects the environment.
How does the waste generation of limes impact their environmental footprint?
- What is the packaging of limes: Limes are generally transported in wooden or cardboard crates. Both wood and cardboard production contribute to (often illegal) deforestation in their production. Limes are also occasionally packaged in plastic nets at the consumer level. Plastic is an even worse environmental offender during its production process, using fossil fuels and causing pollution. All of these packaging methods amount to limes having a high packaging footprint.
- How is the packaging of limes disposed of: Limes use wood, cardboard, and plastic in their packaging. These materials all have different kinds of disposal. Wood and cardboard have very high recycling rates, both at around 90%. These materials are also organic and therefore biodegradable, meaning that both scrap cardboard and wood chips can be used in compost. Plastic, on the other hand, has a very low recycling rate of around 9%. Thus, most plastic is ending up in landfills, or even in oceans, where it causes environmental havoc. Plastic also breaks down into microplastics, which get into soil and water, and can even end up in food.
- How are limes disposed of: Limes have peels that aren’t generally consumed. They can be composted, but rates of food waste actually being composted are very low at around 4%. As a result, most food waste ends up in landfills. Landfills cause general environmental damage, but food waste takes it a step further by generating methane when it is put in landfills.
In short, limes’ use of plastic packaging, as well as low composting rates means that their environmental impact is negative at this stage.
What Have Been Historical Environmental Issues Connected to the Limes Industry
The lime industry has historically had a harmful effect on the environment. Their main offenses over the years include desertification, harmful pesticide pollution, and plastic pollution.
All fruits have had a complex road toward global distribution. They originate in one part of the world and often travel far to end up in your local supermarket. From farm to table, some of our favorite fruits have racked up some serious environmental damage along the way. Whether it’s deforestation to meet demand, water pollution, or disruption of wildlife, most fruits have left a path of destruction. Let’s see how limes have fared throughout history.
What have been the key environmental issues of the limes industry?
- How much land has been lost because of lime production: Lime farming has caused desertification in some areas, especially former rainforest lands. Desertification is the process by which agriculture depletes lands of nutrients and makes it no longer suitable to sustain life. However, limes are also being used to combat desertification. In 2022, a group of Indian farmers used organic lime tree agriculture to help restore previously depleted lands. So while limes can be part of the problem, they can also be part of the solution.
- Which wildlife species have been negatively impacted or displaced because of lime production: Citrus farming is identified as having a minor, though not negligible, impact on habitat loss in tropical regions. Habitat loss is the biggest contributor to species becoming endangered and wildlife and biodiversity loss in general. Many endangered rainforest species, including jaguars, giant otters, and toucans, have been negatively affected by rainforest deforestation caused by agriculture.
- Have water sources and soil been contaminated because of limes production: Limes have historically had high pesticide, particularly fungicide use. These substances have polluted water and soil considerably. A 2020 study found that 10–25% of water sources were contaminated with at least one pesticide.
- Other known historical issues: Lime and citrus production has been involved in several scandals. Notably, a 2021 report revealed that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was sued for failing to regulate certain pesticides used on citrus fruit, namely the often-banned antibiotic streptomycin. The prosecution reportedly argued that streptomycin was a threat to soil and water sources.
- Other known historical issues: Limes use plastic packaging. Plastic is one of the most damaging substances to the environment, particularly oceans. In a 2023 report, CNN stated that there were to date more than 170 trillion plastic particles in the ocean, weighing around 2.3 million tons. They also estimated that this number could more than double by 2040. Though the majority of this is from discarded fishing nets, plastic packaging, such as limes use, still plays a major role.
In short, limes have harmed the environment considerably over the years, particularly through the use of harmful pesticides and fertilizers and the creation of desertification areas.
What Is the Overall Environmental Impact of Food and Agriculture
Food production in general has a high environmental impact. Everything from the amount of land used to the energy involved in irrigation to its effect on plant and animal biodiversity can be a factor in this. In the chart below, you can see how food production is one of the biggest influences on these areas of the environment.
Agriculture alone accounts for over a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions, while using half of the world’s habitable land and 70% of the global freshwater withdrawals. Agriculture also causes 78% of the global ocean and freshwater pollution.
Livestock accounts for the vast majority of non-human mammal and bird biomass. Mammal livestock outweighs wild mammals by a factor of 15-to-1, and poultry livestock outweighs wild birds by a factor of more than 3-to-1.
These statistics highlight the need for sustainable and responsible practices in food production to reduce its impact on the environment. And the need for us to shift toward more environmentally-friendly foods.
How Can You Reduce Your Environmental Impact and Offset Your Personal Carbon Footprint
There are a few things you can do to mitigate some of the negative environmental effects of consuming limes, while still enjoying them. You can also consider offsetting your personal and limes-related carbon emissions, which work to remove carbon emissions elsewhere that are then attributed to you. Here, we will walk you through how to accomplish both of these things.
How Can You Reduce Your Environmental Impact When Shopping for Limes
In this section, we give you a short list of ways you can reduce the negative environmental effects of limes, based on those parts of the life-cycle of limes that would otherwise most negatively impact the environment:
- Buy unpackaged limes: Plastic nets used to package limes contribute significantly to landfills and ocean plastic. Therefore, opting to buy loose limes without these nets can help you reduce your lime environmental impact considerably.
- Buy organic limes: Pesticides are a major contributor to limes’ negative environmental impact, and so you should try to cut down on these as much as possible. Organic farms commit to avoiding chemicals. If you try to buy limes from organic farms, you will thus be greatly reducing all the environmental damage that pesticides can cause.
- Compost lime peels: Food waste ending up in landfills causes a lot of environmental damage. If you make the effort to compost your lime peels, then you will avoid them ending up in landfills. If your city doesn’t provide composting, you can consider creating your own.
- Use lime peels: If you don’t want to compost, you can also consider using the whole lime so nothing goes to waste. Lime zest is a popular ingredient in baking and cocktails. You can even make lime peels into candy!
Following some of these methods can really help you to cut down on your environmental impact of eating limes. None of these will completely eradicate these negative impacts, since there are always effects that may be outside of your control. But some reduction is always better than nothing!
Which Organizations Can You Support to Help Alleviate Your Environmental Impact
Limes can cause a wide range of environmental damage. Though there are some things you can do at the consumer level to reduce your impact, there are also several things outside of your control. Fortunately, there are organizations that are working hard to prevent and reverse damage to the environment caused by industries like lime agriculture.
In the table below, we have compiled some of the best organizations that work in the areas where lime production has affected the environment – and beyond. So that you can make an impact through more than just purchasing power!
Though it is helpful to reduce the environmental impact of your personal consumption, supporting these organizations takes your positive impact a step further. You will be reaching far beyond your own consumption impacts and helping to build a better world for everyone!
How Can You Offset Your Personal Carbon Footprint
The carbon footprint is a key part of your environmental impact. And it is one of the ways we measure the effects of our human-induced global climate change. Yes, even from eating limes!
“Carbon footprint: the amount of greenhouse gasses and specifically carbon dioxide emitted by something (such as a person’s activities or a product’s manufacture and transport) during a given period”Merriam Webster
Basically, it is the amount of carbon emitted by you as an individual or an organization providing you with goods and services – including limes:
- This includes GHG emissions from producing the products that we use and foods that we eat (e.g., power plants, factories or farms, and landfills)
- GHG emissions from fuel that we burn directly or indirectly (e.g., logistics and transportation, cooling or heating facilities),
- as well as the GHG emissions attributed to how we consume these products and foods.
Carbon offsets are reductions in carbon emissions that are used to compensate for carbon emissions occurring elsewhere – for example for the carbon emissions that are associated with limes. They are measured in tons of CO2 equivalents and are bought and sold through international brokers, online retailers, and trading platforms on what is known as the global carbon offset market.
“Carbon Offset: a way for a company or person to reduce the level of carbon dioxide for which they are responsible by paying money to a company that works to reduce the total amount produced in the world, for example by planting trees”Oxford Dictionary
In terms of limes – and indeed all food types – there will always be a carbon footprint, because of the resources it takes to get your food from farms to the place where you’ll eventually eat them. And while there are ways to reduce your carbon footprint when shopping for limes, carbon offsets would be a way to reduce your CO2e emissions all the way down to net zero (or even to become climate positive).
However, when you purchase carbon offsets, it’s important that they actually make a difference in offsetting (aka reducing) total carbon emissions. To achieve that, the following are key criteria:
- Carbon offset projects have to be effective (different projects have different effectiveness rates)
- Carbon offset projects have to be additional
- Carbon offset projects have to be permanent
- The claims from carbon offset projects have to be verifiable
To find the best carbon offsets for you personally, check out our full guide on the best carbon offsets for individuals, where you’ll also learn more about how these carbon offset projects work, what their respective offsetting costs are, and what your best way would be to offset your own carbon emissions.
Limes are a great garnish for drinks and ingredient in baking, but they come at a fairly high environmental cost. Their use of pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers has polluted soils and waters. Their use of plastic packaging has contributed to landfills and ocean plastic. And their farming has caused rainforest deforestation. However, through changing your consumption habits, as well as supporting organizations dedicated to reversing and preventing these effects, you can become a much more responsible lime consumer!
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- A Couple Cooks: Lime Cocktails
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- Impactful Ninja: What is the Carbon Footprint of Watermelons
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- Also Known As: 12 Interesting Facts About Packaging Waste
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- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that fight to protect our environment
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities for reforestation
- Impactful Ninja: Best wildlife conservation charities
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities for protecting the Amazon rainforest
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that protect our national parks
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that fight for clean water
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that help conserve our rivers
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities to save our oceans
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that help farmers
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities for helping farm animals
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities for climate change
- Impactful Ninja: Best carbon offsets for individuals
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that fight to reduce food waste
- Impactful Ninja: Best charities that fight to end plastic pollution
- Our World in Data: Emissions from food alone would take us past 1.5°C or 2°C this century
- Impactful Ninja: Why Is a Carbon Footprint Bad for the Environment
- Impactful Ninja: Best Carbon Offsets for Individuals