Carbon Emissions Trading Explained: All You Need to Know
Impactful Ninja is reader-supported. When you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission.
Hey fellow impactful ninja ? You may have noticed that Impactful Ninja is all about providing helpful information to make a positive impact on the world and society. And that we love to link back to where we found all the information for each of our posts. Most of these links are informational-based for you to check out their primary sources with one click. But some of these links are so-called "affiliate links" to products that we recommend. First and foremost, because we believe that they add value to you. For example, when we wrote a post about the environmental impact of long showers, we came across an EPA recommendation to use WaterSense showerheads. So we linked to where you can find them. Or, for many of our posts, we also link to our favorite books on that topic so that you can get a much more holistic overview than one single blog post could provide. And when there is an affiliate program for these products, we sign up for it. For example, as Amazon Associates, we earn from qualifying purchases. First, and most importantly, we still only recommend products that we believe add value for you. When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission - but at no additional costs to you. And when you buy something through a link that is not an affiliate link, we won’t receive any commission but we’ll still be happy to have helped you. When we find products that we believe add value to you and the seller has an affiliate program, we sign up for it. When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission (at no extra costs to you). And at this point in time, all money is reinvested in sharing the most helpful content with you. This includes all operating costs for running this site and the content creation itself. You may have noticed by the way Impactful Ninja is operated that money is not the driving factor behind it. It is a passion project of mine and I love to share helpful information with you to make a positive impact on the world and society. However, it's a project in that I invest a lot of time and also quite some money. Eventually, my dream is to one day turn this passion project into my full-time job and provide even more helpful information. But that's still a long time to go. Stay impactful,
Why do we add these product links?
What do these affiliate links mean for you?
What do these affiliate links mean for us?
What does this mean for me personally?
Hey fellow impactful ninja ?
You may have noticed that Impactful Ninja is all about providing helpful information to make a positive impact on the world and society. And that we love to link back to where we found all the information for each of our posts.
Most of these links are informational-based for you to check out their primary sources with one click.
But some of these links are so-called "affiliate links" to products that we recommend.
First and foremost, because we believe that they add value to you. For example, when we wrote a post about the environmental impact of long showers, we came across an EPA recommendation to use WaterSense showerheads. So we linked to where you can find them. Or, for many of our posts, we also link to our favorite books on that topic so that you can get a much more holistic overview than one single blog post could provide.
And when there is an affiliate program for these products, we sign up for it. For example, as Amazon Associates, we earn from qualifying purchases.
First, and most importantly, we still only recommend products that we believe add value for you.
When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission - but at no additional costs to you.
And when you buy something through a link that is not an affiliate link, we won’t receive any commission but we’ll still be happy to have helped you.
When we find products that we believe add value to you and the seller has an affiliate program, we sign up for it.
When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission (at no extra costs to you).
And at this point in time, all money is reinvested in sharing the most helpful content with you. This includes all operating costs for running this site and the content creation itself.
You may have noticed by the way Impactful Ninja is operated that money is not the driving factor behind it. It is a passion project of mine and I love to share helpful information with you to make a positive impact on the world and society. However, it's a project in that I invest a lot of time and also quite some money.
Eventually, my dream is to one day turn this passion project into my full-time job and provide even more helpful information. But that's still a long time to go.
Putting a price on carbon is a difficult but necessary measure we must take to ensure a sustainable planet for future generations. Carbon emissions trading is one way to do this, and it can be effective when implemented properly. So, we had to ask: What is carbon emissions trading really, and how could it help us mitigate climate change?
Carbon emissions trading (CET) puts a cap on carbon emissions (that’s being decreased over time) and allows entities to then trade carbon credits according to their usage. CET uses financial incentives to mitigate climate change but is limited by discrepancies in standards and caps.
Keep reading to find out all about what carbon emissions trading is, the impact you can have with it both individually and globally, its benefits and drawbacks, and why it may not be the most effective way to mitigate climate change.
The Big Picture of Carbon Emissions Trading
Carbon emissions trading (CET) is a form of carbon pricing that places a limit on pollution emissions. CET systems became established after the Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty, set a maximum amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could be released into the atmosphere, both globally and nationally.
“Carbon Trading: a system for controlling pollution. Companies and governments can buy or sell licenses to produce carbon dioxide”Cambridge Dictionary
The two main components of CET systems are the limit on pollution and the tradable allowances. Each entity operating under a CET system is issued a certain number of carbon credits each year.
Carbon credits are tradable certificates or permits that give companies, industries, or countries the right to emit 1 tonne (1,000kg) of CO2 or the equivalent amount of a different greenhouse gas (GHG). They are a form of climate currency, meaning they are subject to supply and demand and can be bought and sold through a cap-and-trade market. This market limits how much total CO2 can be emitted.
Each entity operating under CET systems can purchase more carbon credits if its emissions exceed what was issued, and they can sell unused credits to other entities if their emissions are less than what was issued. In short, the amount of total carbon emissions reduction is predetermined with CET systems, but the price of carbon emissions is not.
Globally, the four largest CET systems currently in operation are:
- The European Union emissions trading scheme (EU ETS): The world’s first and largest CET system in operation which was established in 2005. 11,000 installations and a few hundred aircraft operators in Europe are required to participate in the scheme. It has reduced emissions from power generation and energy-intensive industries by roughly 43% since its inception.
- The National Emissions Trading Scheme (China): Established in 2021 after nearly a decade of planning, China’s CET system will be the largest in the world once it is implemented fully. It targets the power sector, specifically the 2,200 entities accounting for nearly 40% of China’s annual carbon emissions. China’s goal is to be carbon neutral by 2060.
- Korea Emissions Trading Scheme (K-ETS): Established in 2015, the K-ETS became East Asia’s first, nationwide mandatory trading scheme that covers 684 of the country’s largest GHG emitters that account for over 70% of national GHG emissions. Their goal is to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.
California’s Cap and Trade Program: First implemented in 2013, this US-based trading CET system targets the roughly 450 businesses that comprise the electric power plant, industrial power plant, and fuel distribution sectors. California’s GHG emissions decreased by 5.3% from 2013 to 2017 due in part to this program, and their goal is to reduce GHG emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050.
|What carbon emissions trading is||CET is a form of carbon pricing that places a limit on pollution emissions.|
|How carbon emissions trading works||Carbon credits cap how much CO2 can be emitted by an entity. This cap on emissions can be gradually reduced over time, leading to less and less overall emissions.|
|The impact of carbon emissions trading on your own emissions||Carbon credits do not directly reduce your carbon footprint.|
|The impact of carbon emissions trading on global emissions||Carbon credits mitigate the problem, but they do not work at the core issue of reducing overall CO2 emissions.|
|The overall effectiveness of carbon emissions trading on reducing carbon emissions||Improper reporting and discrepancies in maximum GHG levels between countries limit carbon credit effectiveness on a global scale.|
|The main benefits of carbon emissions trading||CET systems aid in climate change mitigation, improve air quality, protect ecosystems, incentivize the switch to green energy, and promote energy independence.|
|The main drawbacks of carbon emissions trading||CET systems face improper reporting, discrepancies in caps, and price volatility.|
How Does Carbon Emissions Trading Work
CET systems work by setting a cap on allowable carbon emissions and decreasing that cap gradually over time. It is one way to mitigate the adverse effects of carbon emissions that occur after they enter our atmosphere.
How Does Carbon Emissions Trading Reduce Carbon Emissions
The goal of CET systems is to reduce carbon emissions to mitigate climate change.
- CET systems represent indirect emission reductions. Putting a cap on emissions and decreasing this cap over time reduces carbon emissions over time, preventing CO2 from entering the atmosphere.
When you hear the words “carbon credit”, think about the term “allowance”. Carbon credits represent the maximum amount of CO2 an entity is allowed to emit. This cap on CO2 emissions slowly decreases over time, forcing entities to emit less and less CO2 to stay within the boundaries of the cap. Companies with high levels of emissions can continue to operate, but only at an increased cost.
What Impact Does Carbon Emissions Trading Have on Your Own Carbon Emissions
One of the best ways we can aid in the fight against global climate change is to reduce our carbon footprint. And to do this we first have to reduce our own carbon emissions.
- CET systems do not directly reduce your carbon footprint.
Carbon credits do not directly reduce your own carbon emissions. Setting a limit on allowable carbon emissions is an indirect method of emissions reduction because companies can continue to emit as long as they pay the price.
What Impact Does Carbon Emissions Trading Have on Global Carbon Emissions
Every year we pump over 36 billion tons of CO2 into the atmosphere, fueling climate change. This causes temperature and sea-level rise, melting of sea ice, changing precipitation patterns, and ocean acidification. CET systems aim to reduce global emissions and mitigate these negative environmental effects.
- CET systems indirectly work at the core issue of reducing overall CO2 emissions by providing companies a financial incentive to do so.
Carbon credits do not have a significant impact on global carbon emissions yet. Although the potential is there with CET systems aligning the incentive for companies to reduce their CO2 emissions with their bottom line. In that way, the goal of carbon permits to reduce greenhouse emissions or support sustainable energy projects is aligned with companies’ economic goals to increase their profits.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered the largest decrease in energy-related carbon emissions since World War II, a decrease of 2 billion tonnes. However, emissions rebounded quickly and rose by 6% in 2021 to 36.3 billion tonnes, their highest ever level. This indicates that the earth is still warming at an accelerated rate, and still not enough is being done to implement direct carbon reduction measures.
How Effective Is Carbon Emissions Trading in Reducing Carbon Emissions
CET systems can be effective at reducing carbon emissions if they are used correctly.
- CET systems face improper reporting and discrepancies in maximum GHG levels between countries, which can limit effectiveness on a global scale.
Carbon credits have faced criticism because most industries lack the technology that monitors and determines their amount of CO2 emissions. This makes it easier for companies to cheat on their emissions reports and say they are emitting less than they actually are.
Also, different countries have different standards and caps for CO2 emissions. If the cap is set too high, then companies are not incentivized to reduce emissions. But set the cap too low, and companies will be overly burdened to reduce emissions. And the extra cost will be passed down to consumers as a result.
What Are the Main Benefits and Drawbacks of Carbon Emissions Trading
As with anything, CET systems come with benefits and drawbacks that must be understood before implementing the mechanism on a large scale.
What Are the Main Benefits of Carbon Emissions Trading
CET systems come with environmental benefits in addition to limiting global carbon emissions resulting from fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas).
- Aids in climate change mitigation: CET systems aim to reduce the amount of carbon emissions that enter our atmosphere. Levels of carbon in our atmosphere that cause climate change have increased as a result of human emissions since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1750. The global average concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere today registers at over 400 parts per million. Carbon avoidance can help prevent these levels from increasing even more.
- Improves air quality: Degradation of air quality as a result of carbon emissions is a serious issue. In 2009, the US government declared CO2, CH4, N2O, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) threats to the public health and welfare of current and future generations. Reducing the amount of carbon entering our atmosphere would lead to improved public health in terms of asthma, respiratory allergies, airway diseases, and lung cancer.
- Protects ecosystems: Reducing the amount of carbon that enters our atmosphere promotes healthy ecosystems, which have been linked with cleaner air, water, and food. Protecting forest habitats increases carbon sequestration and defends against erosion. Protecting agricultural land ensures a robust, secure, and prosperous food system. Protecting aquatic ecosystems ensures a readily available supply of fresh water. Lastly, protecting biodiversity protects human health because many plants and animals are used in modern medicines.
- Incentivizes the switch to green energy: CET systems incentivize companies to switch to greener energy sources including solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal energy which emit lower levels of climate-change inducing CO2, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, and mercury. This in turn promotes energy independence. Being able to produce your electricity without the aid of foreign countries is an important step in becoming more self-sufficient.
CET systems can mitigate the effects of climate change, which has a positive cascade effect on public health and plant and animal diversity. In addition, it boosts the global economy and leads to innovative, more environmentally-friendly solutions in years to come.
What Are the Main Drawbacks of Carbon Emissions Trading
The main drawbacks to CET systems involve improper reporting, discrepancies in cap limits, and unpredictable pricing.
- Improper reporting: Many industries lack the technology to monitor and determine exactly how much carbon they are emitting. This makes it easier for companies to cheat their emissions reports and say they are emitting less carbon than they actually are.
- Discrepancies in standards and caps: Currently there is no universal cap for carbon emissions. Instead, different countries have different standards and caps. Setting the cap too low overly burdens companies to reduce their emissions, and the extra cost will be passed down to consumers. But setting the cap too high will not be a big enough incentive to reduce emissions.
- Unpredictable price volatility: With CET systems the price of carbon emissions is not predetermined. The trading system leaves the price up to the market to decide.
Why Is Carbon Emissions Trading Important to Fight Climate Change
As outlined in the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, we must cut current greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 50% by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050. CET systems are important to meet these targets because it can reduce global carbon emissions, carbon that if emitted can remain in our atmosphere for tens of thousands of years.
However, CET systems should not be viewed or used as a panacea for climate change. Relying on them solely is impractical because the immediate effect of reducing emissions under the cap-and-trade system is to benefit a company’s bottom line.
In the long term, direct methods of carbon footprint reduction are much more effective. Reducing your household, travel, and lifestyle carbon footprint can go a long way in the fight against climate change!
What are Better Alternatives to Carbon Emissions Trading
If used correctly, CET systems can provide environmental, economic, and social benefits that go beyond reducing carbon emissions. They have the potential to instigate meaningful environmental change and begin to reverse some of the effects of climate change.
But in the long term, direct methods of carbon footprint reduction are much more effective. These reduction measures don’t have to involve drastic changes either. Actions that may seem small can have a big impact because those small changes add up! You can reduce your carbon footprint in three main areas of your life: household, travel, and lifestyle.
Reduce your household footprint:
- Wash with cold water: Washing clothes in cold water could reduce carbon emissions by up to 11 million tons. Approximately 90% of the energy is used to heat the water, so switching to cold saves also saves energy.
- Replace incandescent bulbs with fluorescent bulbs: Fluorescent bulbs use 75% less energy than incandescent ones, saving energy and thus reducing electricity demand and greenhouse gas emissions.
Reduce your travel footprint:
- Fly less: Aviation accounts for around 1.9% of global carbon emissions and 2.5% of CO2. Air crafts run on jet gasoline, which is converted to CO2 when burned.
- Walk or bike when possible: The most efficient ways of traveling are walking, bicycling, or taking the train. Using a bike instead of a car can reduce carbon emissions by 75%. These forms of transportation also provide lower levels of air pollution.
Reduce your lifestyle footprint:
- Switch to renewable energy sources: The six most common types of renewable energy are solar, wind, hydro, tidal, geothermal, and biomass energy. They are a substitute for fossil fuels that can reduce the effects of global warming by limiting global carbon emissions and other pollutants.
- Recycle: Recycling uses less energy and deposits less waste in landfills. Less manufacturing and transportation energy costs means less carbon emissions generated. Less waste in landfills means less CH4 is generated.
- Switch from single-use to sustainable products: Reusing products avoids resource extraction, reduces energy use, reduces waste generation, and can prevent littering.
- Eat less meat and dairy: Meat and dairy account for 14.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions, with beef and lamb being the most carbon-intensive. Globally, we consume much more meat than is considered sustainable, and switching to a vegan or vegetarian diet could reduce emissions.
- Take shorter showers: Approximately 1.2 trillion gallons of water are used each year in the United States just for showering purposes, and showering takes up about 17% of residential water usage. The amount of water consumed and the energy cost of that consumption are directly related. The less water we use the less energy we use. And the less energy we use, the less of a negative impact we have on the environment.
CET systems is a form of carbon pricing that sets a cap (maximum limit) on carbon emissions with the goal of reducing global emissions by gradually lowering the cap over time. This does not work at the core issue of reducing global emissions, and improper reporting and price volatility can inhibit its success. But if implemented properly, CET can aid in climate change mitigation, incentivize the switch to green energy, and promote energy independence.
CET systems are a good place to start if you want to get into the carbon-emission reduction game, but to be effective in the long term, we must not rely on them solely. Cutting emissions from the source is the best way to reduce our carbon footprint and provide the highest environmental benefits.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency: What is Emission Trading?
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: What is the Kyoto Protocol
- One Tree Planted: Carbon Credits Vs Carbon Offsets – What’s the Difference?
- Environmental Defense Fund: How cap and trade works
- The European Union Commission: EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)
- Center for Strategic and International Studies: China’s New National Carbon Trading Market – Between Promise and Pessimism
- International Carbon Action Partnership: Korea Emissions Trading Scheme
- Center for Climate and Energy Solutions: California Cap and Trade
- California Air Resources Board: Cap-And-Trade Program
- The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection: What is emissions trading?
- The European Commission: European Green Deal – Commission proposes transformation of EU economy and society to meet climate ambitions
- CarbonCredits.com: The Ultimate Guide to Understanding Carbon Credits
- Our World in Data: CO2 emissions
- National Wildlife Federation: Climate Change
- Harmony Fuels: What Is The Difference Between Carbon Offsets And Carbon Credit?
- International Energy Agency: After steep drop in early 2020, global carbon dioxide emissions have rebounded strongly
- International Energy Agency: Global CO2 emissions rebounded to their highest level in history in 2021
- Investopedia: Cap and Trade Definition
- Impactful Ninja: What Is the Carbon Footprint of Coal Energy? A Life-Cycle Assessment
- Impactful Ninja: What Is the Carbon Footprint of Oil Energy? A Life-Cycle Assessment
- Impactful Ninja: What Is the Carbon Footprint of Natural Gas? A Life-Cycle Assessment
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Climate Change – Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Carbon Dioxide Over 800,000 Years
- United States Environmental Protection Agency: Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gasses under the Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
- National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: Asthma, Respiratory Allergies and Airway Diseases
- National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: Cancer
- Natural Resources Defense Council: Carbon Offsets 101
- Carbon Brief: Climate change will hit ‘endemic’ plants and animals the hardest, study warns
- One Green Planet: How Saving Wildlife Benefits Human
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: What is Green Power?
- White House Archives: Fact Sheet – Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
- United Nations University: How Things Work – Carbon Trading
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Paris Climate Agreement
- myclimate: What does “net zero emissions” mean?
- American University: Fact Sheet – What is Carbon Removal?
- The Ocean Foundation: Reduce Your Carbon Footprint
- Cold Water Saves: Washing Laundry In Cold Water Protects A Lot More Than Just Our Clothing.
- Energy Information Administration: Renewable Energy Explained
- Energy Star: Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) and Mercury
- Our World in Data: Where in the world do people have the highest CO2 emissions from flying?
- Our World in Data: Which form of transport has the smallest carbon footprint?
- Zero Waste Europe: Reusable vs Single Use Packaging
- Carbonbrief: Interactive – What is the climate impact of eating meat and dairy?
- Stop Waste: Recycling and Climate Protection
- Impactful Ninja: Is Taking Long Showers Bad for the Environment?
- United States Environmental Protection Agency: Showerheads