How Sustainable Are AppleSkinTM (Apple Eco Leather) Fabrics? A Life-Cycle Analysis

How Sustainable Are AppleSkinTM (Apple Eco Leather) Fabrics? A Life-Cycle Analysis

By
Quynh Nguyen

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AppleSkinTM is a leather alternative made with cellulose fibers from apple peels, commonly a by-product of the apple juice industry. This material is hyped as a bio-based, vegan, and sustainable replacement for leather. But is such a claim legitimate or greenwashing? So, we had to ask: How sustainable are AppleSkinTM fabrics?

AppleSkinTM (Apple Eco Leather) is generally a sustainable fabric. It utilizes apple peels, a by-product of the existing food industry, reducing waste instead of straining natural resources. However, AppleSkinTM contains a high content of fossil-derived plastics.

In this article, we’ll walk you through the life-cycle of AppleSkinTM fabrics used for clothing items and accessories. Then, we evaluate its sustainability, potential, and shortfalls. And in the end, we’ll show you tips for buying sustainable products made with AppleSkinTM fabrics.

Here’s How We Assessed the Sustainability of AppleSkinTM Fabrics

AppleSkinTM is generally considered a more sustainable alternative than animal and synthetic leather. In AppleSkinTM, natural agricultural waste – apple pomace and peels – replaces part of the fossil derivatives in commercial synthetic leather, lowering the environmental impacts. Yet, AppleSkinTM fabrics still contain high percentages of synthetic plastics. 

Sustainable: The ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level | Avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance”

Oxford Dictionary

To understand the sustainability of AppleSkinTM fabrics, we must assess their life-cycle and each stage’s sustainability. This life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a method to evaluate the environmental impacts of products and materials. Over the years, companies have strategically used LCA to research and create more sustainable products. So, let’s have a look at the LCA of AppleSkinTM fabrics!

In this article, we’ll use the cradle-to-grave perspective of the LCA, examining the five stages of the life-cycle of clothing items and accessories made with AppleSkinTM fabrics. When applicable, we also look at cradle-to-gate assessments

The life-cycle stages of AppleSkinTM fabricsEach stage’s sustainability
Sourcing of AppleSkinTM fabricsThe raw materials for AppleSkinTM are natural cellulose fibers extracted from plants and synthetic plastics derived from fossil fuels. Sourcing natural cellulose fibers from apple peels is sustainable and reduces agricultural waste instead of demanding more virgin resources. However, sourcing synthetic plastics is not sustainable because fossil fuels are non-renewable resources.
Manufacturing of AppleSkinTM fabricsManufacturing AppleSkinTM fabrics is generally not very sustainable. AppleSkinTM fabrics contain high content of oil derivatives – polyester and polyurethane – which are associated with high manufacturing carbon footprints, especially when compared with plant-based material. 
Transporting of AppleSkinTM fabricsTransporting for the sourcing and manufacturing of AppleSkinTM fabrics can be relatively sustainable because the material is made locally in the North of Italy. However, the transporting carbon footprint to the point-of-sale (e.g., in the US) of a specific AppleSkinTM product, like a shoe or a handbag, varies depending on distances covered and emissions associated with transporting vehicles.
Usage of AppleSkinTM fabricsThe usage of AppleSkinTM is generally not quite as sustainable as animal leather, mainly because of its modest strength properties. For example, AppleSkinTM tends not to be as durable as cow leather. Also, AppleSkinTM doesn’t have the absolute strength advantages compared to synthetic leather or other leather alternatives with plant-based materials. 
End-of-life of AppleSkinTM fabricsThe end-of-life stage for AppleSkinTM is generally not sustainable because this material is not biodegradable or compostable. It is not easy to recycle AppleSkinTM fabrics, either. 

Overall, we could say AppleSkinTM is a more sustainable leather alternative than animal and synthetic leather, yet not as sustainable as some other plant-based leather. However, the actual environmental impact of a particular product, like a pair of shoes or a handbag, depends on more specific factors, including the percentage of the natural content, transportation distance, and vehicles used during transport. 

Let’s dive deeper into each life-cycle stage and find out how you can buy AppleSkinTM fabrics more sustainably. 

How Sustainable Is the Sourcing Raw Materials for AppleSkinTM Fabrics?

The raw materials for AppleSkinTM are natural cellulose fibers extracted from plants and synthetic plastics derived from fossil fuels. Sourcing natural cellulose fibers from apple peels is sustainable and reduces agricultural waste instead of demanding more virgin resources. However, sourcing synthetic plastics is not sustainable because fossil fuels are non-renewable resources.

What Raw Materials Are Used for AppleSkinTM Fabrics

The raw materials used for AppleSkinTM fabrics come from both plants – renewable resources and fossil fuels – nonrenewable resources

All varieties of AppleSkinTM fabrics consist of a base material and coating layers.

  • This is a similar structure to synthetic leather. 
  • But parts of the layers in AppleSkinTM are filled with plant-based components (instead of 100% fossil-based plastics like in synthetic leather. 

Specifically, the base layer of AppleSkinTM contains:

  •  Polyester (PE), or
  •  Cotton, or
  •  A mixture of polyester and cotton.

And the coating layers of AppleSkinTM contains:

  • Polyurethane (often shorted as PU or PUR), and 
  • Apple fibers: extracted from apple peels and pomace (a by-product of the existing apple juice industry). 

Currently, Melavir is the AppleSkinTM fabric with the highest content of apple waste in an AppleSkinTM fabric. Yet, this specific fabric still only contains 39% apple waste, while the synthetic materials account for the larger half: 61%. Here, the included specific synthetic raw materials are PE (at 18%) and PU (at 43%).

Lorkapple is another AppleSkinTM fabric. It has a higher natural cellulose content of 46%, which includes 22% cotton and 24% apple peel waste. A higher bio-based material percentage means a reduction in fossil fuel dependence. 

However, it is important to note that the environmental impacts of using cotton are not the same as the waste from apple processing. Unless cotton is recycled, cotton’s environmental impacts are likely much higher than apple peels’. 

Related: Are you interested to find out more about the sustainability of cotton cultivation? Check it out in this article here: “How Sustainable Are Cotton Fabrics? All You Need to Know”

How Do the Raw Materials Sourced for AppleSkinTM Fabrics Impact the Environment

The raw materials used in AppleSkinTM come from plants (apple peel and cotton) and fossil fuels. Utilizing apple peels to make AppleSkinTM reduces agricultural waste while requiring no extra environmental resources. However, synthetic plastics used in AppleSkinTM are derived from fossil resources, which are non-renewable. 

Sourcing Apple Peels For AppleSkinTM Fabrics Requires No Extra Environmental Resources 

The apple peels are the agricultural waste of the apple fruit industry, where the apples are pressed for juice, jam, or other food products. Because apple peels are a by-product of an existing industry, they require no extra environmental resources (like water or land). Utilizing this material lowers the overall environmental impacts of AppleSkinTM significantly. 

Replacing Synthetic Plastics in AppleSkinTM Fabrics with Waste From Apple Processing Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions 

Apple peels, like all plant-based material, are carbon storage thanks to the carbon sequestration of the plant – the apple trees in this case. For example, in the AppleSkinTM Melavir (18% polyester, 43% polyurethane, and 39% waste from apple processing), the carbon storage in apple peels is about as much as 30% of the total carbon emissions from producing the product

On average, calculations from Mabel – the maker of AppleSkinTM fabrics – show that for every kilogram of apple residue used to substitute polyurethane (PU) in making leather alternatives, there is 5,28kg of CO2 saved

Specifically, a life-cycle assessment compares AppleSkinTM fabrics with textile varieties in which all the apple waste is replaced with polyurethane (PU). The evaluation demonstrates that AppleSkinTM fabrics are generally the lower-impact alternatives (to synthetic leather). 

For example, the carbon footprint of AppleSkinTM Melavir, which contains 39% of waste from apple processing, is 53% lower than the synthetic leather version, where all the apple waste content is replaced by PU. 

The reductions also happen in other environmental impact categories, including the largest drops as follows: 

  • Marine eutrophication: 45%
  • Terrestrial acidification: 32% 
  • Fossil resource scarcity: 31% 
  • Fine particulate matter formation: 30%
  • Ozone formation human health: 29% 

Of all environmental impact categories, land use is the only category that sees a decrease when PU replaces apple peels in AppleskinTM

Analysis of other AppleSkinTM fabric varieties (with varied natural contents) shows similar results. AppleSkinTM fabrics generally have lower environmental impacts than leather alternatives that contain only synthetic materials. 

Where Are the Raw Materials for AppleSkinTM Fabrics Usually Sourced From

The apple peels for AppleSkinTM fabrics come from apple cultivations in the South Tyrol region of Italy. Frumat, a Bolzano-based company, collects these wasted fruit scraps and turns them into a fine powder, which is then sent to Florence factory of Mabel, the next company in this process, to make AppleSkinTM fabrics.

According to Mabel, Apple waste is currently estimated at about 30,000 tons. Reusing waste from apple processing to make AppleSkinTM fabrics cuts down the amount of waste and the high costs associated with waste management.

How Sustainable Is the Manufacturing of AppleSkinTM Fabrics

Manufacturing AppleSkinTM fabrics is generally not very sustainable. AppleSkinTM fabrics contain high content of oil derivatives – polyester and polyurethane – which are associated with high manufacturing carbon footprints, especially when compared with plant-based material. 

How Sustainably Is AppleSkinTM Fabrics Generally Manufactured

There is limited information available from Mabel about the production of their AppleSkinTM fabrics. However, here are the general steps in manufacturing AppleSkinTM fabrics in a nutshell: 

  1. Collect apple peels and pomace from the fruit juice and compote industry. 
  2. Reduce the waste from apple processing into a powder 
  3. Combine the powder with polyurethane in a liquid mix
  4. Solidify the liquid mix and press it onto a canvas. Depending on the varieties of the AppleSkinTM fabrics, the canvas can be made with the following:
    1. Polyester (PE), or
    2. (Organic) cotton, or
    3.  A mixture of polyester and (organic) cotton.

Despite the hype of AppleSkinTM fabrics being a sustainable plant-based leather alternative, the material is truly a plant-plastic hybrid, containing both plant cellulose fibers and synthetic plastics. In all varieties of AppleSkinTM fabrics, synthetic plastics account for a higher share of the content. 

Because the synthetic plastic components of AppleSkinTM (PE and PU) are oil derivatives, they also come with high carbon footprints. For example, the carbon footprint of polyurethane (foam) is 5,28 kg CO2 eq/ kg PU

Where Are AppleSkin Fabrics Usually Manufactured

AppleSkinTM fabrics are manufactured in Northern Italy. Specifically

  • Apple peels and pomace – the waste from apple processing – are turned into powder by the Bolzano-based company Frumat.
  • The powder is sent to Mabel’s factory in Florence. There it is turned into AppleSkinTM fabrics. 

As AppleSkinTM fabrics are manufactured locally in the north of Italy, the raw materials don’t have to travel long distances, resulting in a relatively low transporting carbon footprint. (More about this in the next section). 

In Italy, the share of renewable energy in primary energy is 18.36%. Though this share is not amongst the highest in Europe, it is higher than in many Asian countries – home to the majority of textile materials. 

Using renewable energy (solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biomass) would significantly reduce manufacturing carbon emissions. 

How Sustainable Is the Transportation of AppleSkinTM Fabrics

Transporting for the sourcing and manufacturing of AppleSkinTM fabrics can be relatively sustainable because the material is made locally in the North of Italy. However, the transporting carbon footprint to the point-of-sale (e.g., in the US) of a specific AppleSkinTM product, like a shoe or a handbag, varies depending on distances covered and emissions associated with transporting vehicles.

In the life-cycle of AppleSkinTM clothing items, transportation typically occurs as below: 

  • From orchards to processing factories: the waste from the apple processing travels from apple orchards in South Tyrol, Italy, to the local factory operated by Fruma. There, an apple powder is made to be mixed with the plastic components to form AppleSkinTM fabrics.
  • From the powder manufacturing location to the textile manufacturing location: The factory that finishes AppleSkinTM fabrics is also located in Northern Italy, in Florence. 
  • From the textile manufacturing location to various factories for clothing items such as shoes or bags. 
  • From the clothing manufacturing location to sorting centers/physical shops 
  • From sorting centers/physical shops to the consumer’s house 
  • From the consumer’s house to the centers for recycling/ disposing of
Traveling Distances of AppleSkinTM Fabrics Vary Depending on the Supply Chain

Though the beginning of the AppleSkinTM fabrics’ life-cycle happens locally in Northern Italy, the rest of the supply chain can spread wider. 

For example, here are some scenarios for transporting AppleSkinTM shoes: 

  • From Northern Italy, AppleSkinTM fabrics’ are transported to Australia to be made into shoes and then sold worldwide. 
  • After AppleSkinTM fabrics are finished in Florence, they travel to another factory in Italy where the shoes are made. The shoe products are sold exclusively in Europe. 
  • From Northern Italy, AppleSkinTM fabrics’ are shipped to the US, incorporated into shoes, and sold to US consumers. 

You can reduce the transporting carbon footprint by choosing AppleSkinTM products that travel a shorter distance from the orchards and are made closer to your home.

The Carbon Footprint of Transporting AppleSkinTM Fabrics Depends Largely on the Vehicle of Transportation 

During its life-cycle, a piece of AppleSkinTM clothing can be transported using various types of vehicles, including: 

  • Large container ships 
  • Planes 
  • Freight trains 
  • Long-distance trucks 
  • Short-distance delivering vans 

And these various types of transportation vehicles have different carbon footprint impacts: 

For example, as a consumer, you can choose not to pick the fast delivery option when ordering AppleSkinTM clothing items and accessories to reduce the carbon footprint of your order. 

How Sustainable Is the Usage of AppleSkinTM Fabrics

The usage of AppleSkinTM is generally not quite as sustainable as animal leather, mainly because of its modest strength properties. For example, AppleSkinTM tends not to be as durable as cow leather. Also, AppleSkinTM doesn’t have the absolute strength advantages compared to synthetic leather or other leather alternatives with plant-based materials. 

AppleSkinTM is not as strong as animal leather. A study comparing cow-hide leather with leather alternatives shows that AppleSkinTM has a modest tensile strength, an equivalent of 35% of bovine shoe upper leather.

However, in comparison with other leather alternatives, AppleSkinTM’s tensile strength is 

  • nearly 3 times higher than commercial PU leather
  • more than 3 times higher than Piñatex
  • only about two-thirds of Desserto® (cactus leather)

This low tensile strength indicates that AppleSkinTM will not be as durable as cow-hide leather or cactus leather when it comes to clothing items that bear high forces (such as shoes). 

Long-lasting clothing items are generally more sustainable because you don’t need to replace them too frequently (thus, no need for more resources to make the new one). 

According to the same study, AppleSkinTM has high flex resistance, meeting the flex resistance requirements for upper shoe leather (though such resistance is lower than in Piñatex or cow-hide leather). Thus, AppleSkinTM can be partially durable when high forces are irrelevant. 

How Sustainable Is the End-of-Life of AppleSkinTM Fabrics

The end-of-life stage for AppleSkinTM is generally not sustainable because this material is not biodegradable or compostable. It is not easy to recycle AppleSkinTM fabrics, either. 

AppleSkinTM fabrics are truly a hybrid between plant-based material and synthetic plastics. Its hybrid nature limited its end-of-life options

  • The synthetic component means AppleSkinTM is not biodegradable or compostable. 
  • The combination of different materials makes it not suitable for recycling because it would contaminate sensitive recycling processes that rely on relatively pure material streams. 

That leaves only two options at the end of life for AppleSkinTM: incinerated or landfilled. As no usable plastics can be extracted, new fossil fuels will need to be used in the next product cycle

How Circular Are Products Made of AppleSkin Fabrics

In the textile industry, a circular economy is designed to keep products and materials in use for as long as possible, especially through reusing and recycling. It also covers regenerating natural systems that support the industry and reducing polluted waste released into such systems.

“The circular economy is a systems solution framework that tackles global challenges like climate change, biodiversity loss, waste, and pollution.”

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

As a whole, the textile industry is almost linear: 97% of the input is new resource.

There have been innovations moving towards circulation in the textile industry based on the “Closed-Loop Supply Chain.” This is a social system in which products and their components are designed, manufactured, used, and managed to circulate for as long as possible. 

According to a life-cycle assessment (cradle-to-graves) commissioned by the shoe brand MoEa, compared to other leather alternatives made with cactus, pineapple leaves, and grapes, AppleSkinTM has the highest carbon impact. 

The carbon footprint of a square meter of AppleSkinTM “leather” is 7.6 kg CO2 eq. This carbon footprint is: 

  • More than twice that of cactus leather that incinerated at the end-of-life stage​​
  • Twice as much as that of vegan leather made with grape and vegetable oil 
  • Almost 1.3 times higher than that of Piñatex

Yes, it is important to note that cow leather has a carbon footprint of 60.1 kg CO2 eq per square meter. That is nearly 8 times that of AppleSkinTM “leather.” 

Consequently, a MoEa shoe using AppleSkinTM “leather” has the highest carbon emission among all the company’s shoes made with (part) plant-based leather. An average pair of vegan MOEA shoes have a carbon footprint of 9.76 kg CO2 eq, while their AppleSkinTM shoes emit slightly more: 9.92 kg CO2 eq per pair. 

How Can You Buy AppleSkinTM Fabrics More Sustainably

The key to sustainably buying AppleSkinTM products is to check on relevant environmental and original certifications. 

  • Recycled Claim Standard (RCS): The Textile Exchange RCS was originally developed as an international, voluntary standard that sets requirements for third-party certification of Recycled input and chain of custody. 
  • The Global Recycled Standard (GRS): The Global Recycled Standard (GRS) is an international, voluntary, full product standard that sets requirements for third-party certification of Recycled Content, chain of custody, social and environmental practices, and chemical restrictions. It can be used for any product with more than 20% recycled material. 
  • STeP by OEKO-TEX®: STeP by OEKO-TEX® is an independent certification system for brands, retailers, and manufacturers from the textile and leather industry. It communicates organizational environmental measures, including reducing carbon footprint and water usage.
  • OEKO-TEX® STANDARD 100: A label for textiles tested for harmful substances. 

Some certifications are signaling brands’ efforts toward lowered environmental impacts and a circular economy are: 

  • B Corp Certification: The label B Corp is a certification reserved for for-profit companies. Certified holders are assessed on their social and environmental impacts. 
  • Cradle2Cradle certification: Cradle2Cradle provides a standardized approach to material circularity. It assesses whether products have been suitably designed and made with the circular economy in mind covering five critical categories: material health, material reuse, renewable energy and carbon management, water stewardship, and social fairness.

Where to Buy Sustainable AppleSkinTM Fabrics 

We have established throughout the life-cycle assessment that AppleSkinTM fabrics are generally more sustainable than commercial synthetic leather. Here we compile for you a list of some of the most sustainable brands selling products containing AppleSkinTM(in alphabetic order)

Why Is It Important to Buy Products Made of More Sustainable Fabrics

It is important to buy products made of more sustainable fabrics because a sustainable textile industry has a lower carbon footprint, helps save natural resources, and is better for forests, animals, and humans. 

Buying Sustainable Fabrics Reduces Your Carbon Footprint 

The production of clothing and footwear is estimated to contribute 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions – more than all international flights and shipping combined. If the fashion industry were a country, it would be the fourth largest emitter of carbon dioxide

One way to reduce the carbon footprint of the clothes you buy is to opt for sustainable fabrics. Sustainable fabrics, which are often made with natural or recycled fibers, have relatively low carbon footprints compared to petroleum-based fabrics. For example, organic cotton made in the US has a carbon footprint of 2.35 kg CO2 (per ton of spun fiber) – a quarter of polyester’s carbon footprint

Buying Sustainable Fabrics Reduces Demand For Natural Resources and Waste Management

The textile industry uses water and land to grow cotton and other fibers. It is estimated that 79 billion cubic meters of water were used for the sector worldwide in 2015. For example, producing a single cotton t-shirt requires as much water as one person drinks for 2.5 years (2,700 liters of fresh water).

Worse yet, the textile economy is vastly more linear than circular: the largest amount of resources used in clothes ended up in landfill (instead of being recycled to remake clothes). According to a report by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation,

  • Less than 3% of materials used in the textile economy in 2015 came from recycled sources.
  • In other words, more than 97% of resources used in making clothes are newly extracted. 

When clothing items are disposed of within a short period of time – under a year in the case of half of the fast fashion clothes – the natural systems that provide raw materials for fabrics don’t have enough time to recover and regenerate, which could lead to ecological breakdown. 

Sustainable fabrics are made with less water and emissions while lasting longer:

  • Because they are durable, you don’t need to buy new clothes too often. 
  • Thus, you help reduce the pressure to extract more resources for making new items. 

Similarly, making and consuming sustainable fabrics made with recycled materials reduces the demand for virgin materials while helping tackle waste management. 

Buying Sustainable Fabrics Encourages Sustainable Management of Forests

Sustainable plant-based fabrics are made with raw materials from forests and plantations that are sustainably managed, such as complying with FSC standards

When you buy sustainable plant-based fabrics, you discourage unsustainable forestry practices like illegal logging. You can help reduce deforestation, biodiversity loss, and the effect of climate change. 

Buying Sustainable Fabrics Encourages Fairer Treatment of Animals 

The fashion industry is rife with animal mistreatment when it comes to making animal-based fabrics like cashmere or leather. Every year, billions of animals suffer and die for clothing and accessories.

Buying sustainable vegan alternatives can help to reduce the pressure on raising more and more animals to meet the demand for animal-based fabrics while sacrificing their well-being and lives. 

Suppose you have to buy fabrics made with, for example, leather or wool; make sure you only choose brands committed to cruelty-free products. In that case, you help advocate better treatments for animals raised within the textile industry.

Using Sustainable Fabrics Encourages Fairer Treatment of Textile Workers 

Recent statistics from UNICEF estimated as many as 170 million child laborers worldwide, many of whom were engaged in some form of work in the textile industry. They don’t get paid minimum wages and often work long hours. 

When you buy sustainable fabrics from brands transparent about the working conditions at their factories, you discourage the use of child labor and help promote better working conditions for textile workers.

Final Thoughts

AppleSkinTM is generally a more sustainable leather alternative than synthetic leather. Utilizing apple peels to make AppleSkinTM reduces agricultural waste instead of restraining natural resources. 

However, AppleSkinTM contains a high content of synthetic plastics alongside its plant-based material extracted from apple waste. Using fossil-derived plastics increases the material’s carbon footprint and hinders its end-of-life options. 

To make it more sustainable to use AppleSkinTM fabrics, buy second-hand when possible, use clothing items for as long as possible, upcycle the material to extend its usage, and arrange for it to be recycled or upcycled whenever possible.

Stay impactful,



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