Is Eating Clementines Ethical & Sustainable? Here Are the Facts
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Hey fellow impactful ninja ?
You may have noticed that Impactful Ninja is all about providing helpful information to make a positive impact on the world and society. And that we love to link back to where we found all the information for each of our posts.
Most of these links are informational-based for you to check out their primary sources with one click.
But some of these links are so-called "affiliate links" to products that we recommend.
First and foremost, because we believe that they add value to you. For example, when we wrote a post about the environmental impact of long showers, we came across an EPA recommendation to use WaterSense showerheads. So we linked to where you can find them. Or, for many of our posts, we also link to our favorite books on that topic so that you can get a much more holistic overview than one single blog post could provide.
And when there is an affiliate program for these products, we sign up for it. For example, as Amazon Associates, we earn from qualifying purchases.
First, and most importantly, we still only recommend products that we believe add value for you.
When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission - but at no additional costs to you.
And when you buy something through a link that is not an affiliate link, we won’t receive any commission but we’ll still be happy to have helped you.
When we find products that we believe add value to you and the seller has an affiliate program, we sign up for it.
When you buy something through one of our affiliate links, we may earn a small commission (at no extra costs to you).
And at this point in time, all money is reinvested in sharing the most helpful content with you. This includes all operating costs for running this site and the content creation itself.
You may have noticed by the way Impactful Ninja is operated that money is not the driving factor behind it. It is a passion project of mine and I love to share helpful information with you to make a positive impact on the world and society. However, it's a project in that I invest a lot of time and also quite some money.
Eventually, my dream is to one day turn this passion project into my full-time job and provide even more helpful information. But that's still a long time to go.
Clementines have been popular for centuries. They contain just 35 calories and are full of vitamin C and antioxidants. Sometimes known as mandarin oranges, clementines are native to South and Southeast Asia, but are now grown all over the world. However, clementines can also have some unethical and unsustainable practices associated with them. So we had to ask: Is eating clementines ethical and sustainable?
Eating clementines is slightly unethical. This is mainly because the clementine industry has been accused of some worker endangerment. However, they haven’t been involved in any major reported incidents of child or forced labor.
Eating clementines is fairly unsustainable. This is largely because of the type of fertilizers and the amount of pesticides used, as well as their high irrigation requirements. However, they still have a very low carbon footprint compared to other fruits.
In this article, we will assess both the ethical and sustainability practices of the clementine industry. Through these two lenses, you will be able to gain in-depth knowledge of the overall impacts of the clementines that you eat!
Here’s How We Assessed the Ethics & Sustainability of Clementines
The Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA) is one of the ways we measure the externalities of our actions, like the consumption of clementines. It is a holistic assessment based on the potential impact of food and agriculture operations on the environment and people. Those impacts are changes in our environment that can have adverse effects on the air, land, water, fish, and wildlife or the inhabitants of the ecosystem.
“Ethical: The discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong”Encyclopedia Britannica
Ethics and sustainability are closely interconnected concepts that share a common objective: the well-being and preservation of our planet, including all its life and future generations.
“Sustainable: The ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level | Avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance”Oxford Dictionary
Basically, all goods and services you buy—including clementines—leave an impact on people, animals, and our environment. And when it comes to food in general—and clementines in specific—the following are key factors for their ethics and sustainability:
- Social and economic conditions: The ethics of food crucially depends on the social and economic conditions of the farmers who grow them. Especially on fair labor practices, including fair wages and safe working conditions.
- Seasonality: Eating seasonally is a lever of sustainability. The two key reasons are that seasonal food is more likely grown in their “natural growing season” without using greenhouses, and also more likely to be grown locally.
- Land requirements: Large parts of the world that were once covered by forests and wildlands are now used for agriculture. 10 million hectares of forest are destroyed annually and 50% of the world’s habitable land is now used for agriculture. This loss of natural habitat has been the main driver for reducing the world’s biodiversity.
- Water footprint: 70% of global freshwater is now used for agricultural purposes. By assessing the water footprint of a particular food, we can determine how our limited freshwater resources are being consumed and polluted.
- Pesticide and fertilizer usage: Pesticides and fertilizers provide a range of agricultural benefits. However, numerous studies link pesticides and fertilizers to serious effects on human health, along with disruptions to vital ecosystems and the spread of aquatic dead zones.
- Carbon footprint: The carbon footprint is one of the ways we measure the effects of our human-induced global climate change. Today, food production accounts for over a quarter (26%) of global greenhouse gas emissions.
- Waste generation: Food and its packaging account for almost 45% of the materials landfilled in the US alone. And packaging sent to landfills, especially when made from plastics, does not degrade quickly or, in some cases, at all.
To understand the overall environmental impact of clementines, we must assess each of their key factors. This Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA) is a tool developed for assessing the impact of food and agriculture operations on the environment and people. And this tool helps us to evaluate whether eating clementines is ethical & sustainable.
Here’s How Ethical & Sustainable Eating Clementines Is
The overall ethics & sustainability of clementines is fairly low. The industry has been reported to engage in worker endangerment, as well as many unsustainable practices like monoculture farming, high pesticide usage, and plastic packaging.
Clementines have some good qualities when it comes to ethics and sustainability. For example, the industry isn’t involved in major accusations of child or forced labor and has a very small carbon footprint. However, they still have a lot of unsustainable and unethical qualities.
So, let’s have a look at the ethics & sustainability impact of each key factor of clementines!
|Key Assessment Factors||Ethics & Sustainability|
|Social and economic conditions of clementines||Clementines’ social and economic conditions are slightly bad. The worst ethical issues in the clementine industry are exposure to dangerous chemicals and migrant workers’ vulnerability to exploitation.|
|Seasonality of clementines||Clementines’ seasonality is between October and January and they aren’t widely available outside of this season.|
|Land requirements for clementines||Clementines’ land requirements are fairly high, yielding only 16 tons per hectare. They also farm in monocultures and have been linked to deforestation, meaning that they are very unsustainable at this stage.|
|Water footprint of clementines||Clementines have a moderate water footprint of 50 inches of water per year. Because of where they grow, they need considerable irritation, which raises their footprint significantly.|
|Agrochemical usage for clementines||Clementines’ agrochemical use is very high. This, paired with the fact that they use phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers means that they are very unsustainable in this area.|
|Carbon footprint of clementines||The carbon footprint of clementines is 0.06 kg (0.13 lbs) CO2e per pound of clementines. The main contributors to this carbon footprint are their use of pesticides, the energy used to transport them, and the use of plastic packaging. However, this carbon footprint is still relatively small compared to other fruits.|
|Waste generation of clementines||Clementines’ waste generation is high. This is especially true considering the low recycling rates of their wood and plastic packaging, as well as their low composting rates.|
These are the overall summaries, but there is a lot more to the story. In the next few sections, we will dive deeper into each stage to illustrate to you all the important aspects of clementines’ ethics & sustainability.
How Ethical & Sustainable Are the Social and Economic Conditions for Clementines
Clementines’ social and economic conditions are slightly bad. The worst ethical issues in the clementine industry are exposure to dangerous chemicals and migrant workers’ vulnerability to exploitation.
Everything we consume was made or harvested by somebody. In past centuries, this was often someone who lived in your community and who you might have even known personally. But through the rise of globalized distribution systems, we have become increasingly alienated from the people who make our food. This leaves a lot of room for exploitation and abuse, both of which are rampant in the food industry. Here, we will look at how the clementine industry fares in relation to these ethical questions.
How ethical & sustainable are the social and economic conditions of growing clementines?
- Are farmers paid fair wages to grow clementines: There have been reports of large disparities in wages between different Californian clementine farms. This is largely attributed to the many third parties and middlemen, as well as contract-based farming positions that allow farms to shirk responsibility for their workers. However, many workers on these farms are still making above California’s state minimum wage, and so the wages could be much worse.
- How safe are the working conditions to grow clementines: Citrus fruits are notorious for having copious amounts of pesticides, particularly fungicides, some of which are known carcinogens. These can be damaging to harvesters’ health, especially if they have to do the spraying, and so they present a danger to workers on clementine farms.
- Are there reports of child or forced labor to grow clementines: Clementines don’t have any major reports of child labor, especially in the US. However, oranges and other citrus fruits do have such reports. So, it is possible that some clementines come from those same farms. There are also no major reports of forced labor within the US clementine industry.
- What is the wider economic impact on the communities that grow clementines: In California, 90% of the workforce are from Mexico, and 60% are in the US illegally. Migrant workers, especially those who are undocumented, are much more vulnerable to exploitation than documented workers. As a result, the California clementine industry has room for exploitation of workers.
In short, the clementine industry’s use of harmful pesticides and its effect on workers, as well as the possibility of migrant worker exploitation mean that they are a slightly unethical fruit.
How Ethical & Sustainable Are the Seasonality for Clementines
Clementines’ seasonality is between October and January and they aren’t widely available outside of this season.
Every fruit has a natural season in which they grow, usually lasting a couple of months, which can range depending on the region. However, international demand for every kind of fruit is year-round. This demand is often met by importing fruits from tropical places which can grow year-round, or by growing them in greenhouses. Both of these methods use more resources and are thus less sustainable than conventional farming. Here, we will look at how the clementine industry accommodates year-round demand.
How ethical & sustainable is it to grow clementines in-season vs out-of-season?
- When is the natural season for growing and harvesting clementines: Clementines are typically in season during the autumn and winter, from October to January. Clementines are typically not available outside of this season.
- How are clementines naturally grown in-season: In-season clementines are typically grown in California, meaning they are fairly sustainable if you live in the US.
- How are clementines grown out-of-season: Clementines are not typically available outside of their season, and so you will likely not have the option to buy them when they would potentially be less sustainable.
In short, clementine seasonality does not have a significant impact on their sustainability, because they are sustainable in-season and generally unavailable out of season.
How Ethical & Sustainable Are the Land Requirements for Clementines
Clementines’ land requirements are fairly high, yielding only 16 tons per hectare. They also farm in monocultures and have been linked to deforestation, meaning they are very unsustainable at this stage.
The growth stage has a major impact on fruits’ sustainability. The amount of land used, especially in relation to its expansion, the method with which they are grown, and their effect on surrounding land and wildlife are all important factors. In this section, we will look at the ways in which clementines’ land usage affects their sustainability.
How ethical & sustainable are the land requirements for growing clementines?
- What is the land usage of clementines: Clementines yield around 16 tons per hectare. This is a moderately low yield amongst fruits. For example, strawberries yield up to 25 tons per hectare and bananas up to 100. Therefore, clementines will need slightly more space than the average fruit to grow, on a per-ton basis.
- Where and how are clementines grown: The majority of the world’s clementines are grown in China. Clementines grow on shrub trees, which are evergreen. Fruit trees are excellent at sequestering carbon. Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing carbon from the air and then storing it in the ground. This lowers clementines’ carbon footprint and improves their sustainability.
- Are clementines grown in monocultures or polycultures: Being citrus fruits, clementines are mainly grown in monocultures. Monocultures are very unsustainable and so this growth method raises clementines’ potential harm to the environment considerably.
- How does the growing of clementines affect soil fertility and erosion: Citrus farms have been identified as a major driver of soil erosion. Excess soil erosion and depletion of nutrients can lead to a phenomenon known as desertification. Desertification renders vast swaths of land completely uninhabitable and unfarmable, essentially making them into deserts.
- How does the clementines industry affect the loss of habitable land: Being a citrus fruit, clementines have been linked to deforestation, especially in the Amazon. Deforestation is not just bad for the specific wildlife and people who live there, but can cause chain reactions with global consequences. Losing this habitable land to clementine and other citrus production is very unsustainable.
- How does the clementines industry affect wildlife and biodiversity: Clementines are not only linked to deforestation, but also monoculture farming, which does not replace natural forests with equivalent vegetation. Monocultures deprive large areas of biodiversity, sometimes turning areas into deserts. Pollinators like bees and butterflies are particularly harmed.
In short, clementines’ use of monoculture farming, low land yield, and participation in deforestation means they can be very unsustainable in this area.
How Ethical & Sustainable Is the Water Footprint of Clementines
Clementines have a moderate water footprint of 50 inches of water per year. Because of where they grow, they need considerable irritation, which raises their footprint significantly.
Water usage is one of the most important factors in a fruit’s sustainability. Practices like irrigation use significant resources and can cause pollution, and as such, factors like the amount of water used, where it is sourced, as well as the way they affect the water sources around them, are all important. Here, we will look at these different angles of clementines’ water footprint.
How ethical & sustainable is the water footprint of growing clementines?
- What is the overall water usage of clementines: Clementines need around 50 inches of water per year. This is a very average water requirement amongst fruits and so their water footprint is moderate.
- What is the green water footprint of clementines: The green water footprint is the amount of water from precipitation stored in the soil and used by plants for growth. Most US-consumed clementines are imported from Spain. Spain only gets about 25 inches of rainfall a year, and so the majority of the water in the area will be going towards clementines’ water needs. This means that clementines’ green water footprint is very high.
- What is the blue water footprint of clementines: The blue water footprint is the amount of water sourced from surface (such as rivers or lakes) or groundwater resources. Since Spain doesn’t get enough water to meet clementines’ water needs naturally, they will require a significant amount of irrigation. As a result, their blue water footprint is very high.
- What is the gray water footprint of clementines: The gray water footprint is the amount of freshwater required to clean up water pollution to meet certain quality standards. Essentially, it’s the amount of water needed to make polluted water clean enough to be safe and healthy for humans and the environment. Clementines have been found to use a high amount of pesticides. This means that a considerable amount of water is needed to clean up clementines’ pesticide residue and so their gray water footprint is high.
- How does the clementines industry affect freshwater and ocean pollution: Clementines use a significant amount of both irrigation and pesticides. Irrigation can cause serious damage to water sources, such as destabilizing groundwater balances and oversalinating freshwater. Likewise, pesticides can pollute water sources, presenting danger for aquatic life.
In short, clementines are very unsustainable, mainly due to their high irrigation needs and significant pesticide usage.
How Ethical & Sustainable Is the Agrochemical Usage for Clementines
Clementines’ agrochemical use is very high. This, paired with the fact that they use phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers means that they are very unsustainable in this area.
Pesticides and fertilizers are agrochemicals that are very unsustainable and damaging to ecosystems. This is because they require resources to create and can easily run off into groundwater and soil systems. Here, we will look at how sustainable clementines’ pesticide and fertilizer rates really are.
How ethical & sustainable is the agrochemical usage of growing clementines?
- What is the pesticide usage of clementines: Clementines use a considerable amount of pesticides, particularly fungicides. Pesticides can cause many kinds of environmental damage, including poisoning surrounding wildlife, and leakages getting into soil and groundwater. Fungicides in particular are harmful to microorganisms in soil, reducing biodiversity in surrounding areas.
- What is the fertilizer usage of clementines: Clementines typically use equal parts potassium, phosphorous, and nitrogen fertilizer. While potassium generally has a minimal environmental impact, both phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers can be very damaging to the environment. As a result, clementines’ fertilizer usage is very unsustainable.
- Are there any known issues connected to the agrochemical usage for clementines: The particular fungicides that are used in the production of clementines can be very harmful to human health. For example, they have been found to have hormone-disrupting qualities and are known carcinogens, which can also affect animals.
In short, clementines’ use of excessive agrochemicals, especially phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers, is very unsustainable.
How Ethical & Sustainable Is the Carbon Footprint of Clementines
The carbon footprint of clementines is 0.06 kg (0.13 lbs) CO2e per pound of clementines. The main contributors to this carbon footprint are their use of pesticides, the energy used to transport them, and the use of plastic packaging. However, this carbon footprint is still relatively small compared to other fruits.
Carbon footprint is one aspect of the overall sustainability of a fruit. It essentially measures how much carbon or other greenhouse gasses the production of fruits emits into the atmosphere. Emissions from product manufacturing, irrigation, transportation fuel, and landfills all add up to create the overall carbon footprint of a fruit. Let’s see how the carbon footprint of clementines contributes to their overall sustainability.
How ethical & sustainable is the carbon footprint of clementines?
- What is the overall carbon footprint of clementines: Clementines have an overall carbon footprint of 0.06 kg (0.13 lbs) CO2e per pound of clementines. This means that for every pound of clementines produced, 0.06kg of carbon is released into the atmosphere. This is one of the lowest carbon footprints amongst fruit.
- What are the main contributors to the carbon footprint of clementines: The main factors that contribute to the carbon footprint of clementines are pesticide rates, use of plastic packaging, and long transportation distances.
- Which life-cycle stage of clementines has the highest carbon footprint: The life cycle that contributes the most to clementines’ carbon footprint is transportation. This is because clementines have to be shipped to the US from places like Spain and Peru. They also need to be refrigerated during shipping, which raises their carbon footprint.
In short, though clementines have some carbon-emitting steps to their production process, their carbon footprint is still one of the lowest among fruits.
How Ethical & Sustainable Is the Waste Generation of Clementines
Clementines’ waste generation is high. This is especially true considering the low recycling rates of their wood and plastic packaging, as well as their low composting rates.
When fruit waste, either in the form of packaging or organic materials, is disposed of, it can cause a lot of problems. Whether it’s damaging wildlife, getting into oceans, emitting methane, or dissolving into microplastics that contaminate groundwater, all these materials have their part to play. The sheer amount of waste we produce is reaching a crisis point and won’t be able to continue much longer. In this section, we will look at how sustainable clementines’ waste generation is.
How ethical & sustainable is the waste generation of clementines?
- What is the packaging of clementines: There are generally a few components to clementine packaging: cardboard, wood, and plastic, all of which create environmental damage when produced. Plastic has devastating impacts on the environment, creating air and water pollution during their production process which is harmful to people and wildlife. Cardboard and wood are less damaging then plastic, but both still contribute to deforestation, which is very unsustainable.
- How is the packaging of clementines disposed of: The materials used in clementine packaging—wood, cardboard, and plastic—all have very different recycling rates. Cardboard has the highest recycling rate at around 89%. Wood, however, has a much lower recycling rate of only 15%. Plastic has by far the lowest at around 9%. This means that most clementine packaging, especially the wood and plastic components, end up in landfills. Landfills are very harmful to the environment, taking up land space and causing chemical runoff pollution.
- How are clementines disposed of: All of the clementine’s waste, including the pit, is biodegradable. However, only about 4% of compostable materials are actually composted, meaning that most simply go to landfills. Besides the general unsustainable qualities of landfills, throwing food waste in landfills generates methane, which is a very harmful greenhouse gas. Considering that around 4 million tons of citrus peels (roughly 600,000 tons of clementine peels) are thrown away every year, that’s a major contributor to landfill.
In short, clementines’ use of plastic and wood in their packaging, as well as their low composting rates, means that they contribute to landfills significantly, which is very unsustainable.
What Have Been Historical Ethics & Sustainability Issues Connected to the Clementine Industry
The clementine industry has historically done some unethical and unsustainable things. They frequently have used harmful chemicals like nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, as well as requiring significant irrigation, all of which have damaging effects on the environment and workers.
All fruits have had a complex road toward global distribution. They originate in one part of the world and often travel far to end up in your local supermarket. From farm to table, some of our favorite fruits have used unsustainable practices. Whether it’s exploiting labor, deforestation to meet demand, water pollution, or disruption of wildlife, most fruits have left a path of destruction. Many of these effects are still felt today or have even increased. Let’s see how clementines have fared throughout history.
What have been the key ethical & sustainable issues of the clementine industry?
- Has labor been exploited because of clementines production: The clementine industry has been involved in reports of worker endangerment. One case in 2016 involved workers suing a clementine farm after they were sickened by exposure to dangerous pesticides. These cases show that the high pesticide usage of clementines can have a serious effect on workers.
- How much land has been lost because of clementines production: Clementine production has taken up considerable portions of land, especially in major citrus-producing countries like Spain and Italy. In one Spanish citrus farm, clementine production alone has taken up 66,000 hectares of land. This land use has caused pesticides to be spread far and wide throughout the region, which has damaged wildlife.
- Which wildlife species have been negatively impacted or displaced because of clementines production: One of the major dangers to wildlife is the increasing expansion of monoculture agriculture, which does not offer enough biodiversity to be a thriving ecosystem. Clementines’ historical use of monocultures means that their cultivation has had a significant impact on wildlife.
- Have water sources and soil been contaminated because of clementines production: Irrigation is particularly harmful to water sources because it disrupts natural water balances. Pesticides also get into water and cause issues for aquatic life. Finally, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers both have a history of promoting invasive algae species, which spread through water. The continued use of irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers by clementine farms means that they have harmed water sources considerably.
In short, clementines’ history of worker endangerment and land clearing in Spain and Italy, as well as their use of irrigation and pesticides, and phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers, have caused them to have a detrimental impact on the environment and people over the years.
How Can You Reduce Your Environmental Impact and Offset Your Personal Carbon Footprint
There are a few things you can do to make your clementine consumption more ethical and sustainable, while still enjoying them. You can also consider offsetting your personal and clementine-related carbon emissions, which work to remove carbon emissions elsewhere that are then attributed to you. Here, we will walk you through how to accomplish both of these things.
How Can You Shop for Clementines More Ethically & Sustainably
In this section, we give you a short list of ways you can consume clementines in a more sustainable way. This list is designed to target the most unsustainable parts of lemons’ life-cycle:
- Buy clementines with less (plastic) packaging: This might come at the cost of nicks and bruises, but reducing or even omitting plastic from your clementine footprint is crucial. Even avoiding more easily-recyclable materials like cardboard and wood can make your clementines more sustainable. One of the best ways to do this is to buy clementines individually from the grocery store, not in bags or crates.
- Buy organic clementines: Organic farms generally avoid nitrogen fertilizers and so they are good to support if you want to reduce your fertilizer impact. Plus, if your clementines don’t have as many chemicals, it will be safer for the workers who harvest them. If you make sure to buy organic clementines, you will be able to make your clementine consumption more sustainable.
- Compost and recycle: Another major contributor to the clementines’ unsustainability is improper waste disposal. Make sure that you compost all organic waste and recycle all paper waste to prevent them from ending up in landfills. If you don’t have a government-run composting or recycling program in your area, consider making your own compost and even using cardboard as roughage.
Following some of these methods can really help you to make your clementine-eating more sustainable. None of these will completely eradicate the negative impacts, since there are always effects that may be outside of your control. But some reduction is always better than nothing!
Which Organizations Can You Support to Help Promote Ethics & Sustainability
While clementine production engages in some very unsustainable practices, there are also some organizations that help you change the parts of these processes that would otherwise be outside of your control. These organizations are working hard to prevent and reverse damage to the environment caused by industries like clementine agriculture, towards a more sustainable future.
In the table below are some of the best charities that work in the areas where clementine production are very unsustainable—and beyond:
Though it is helpful to boost the sustainability of your personal clementine consumption, supporting these organizations takes your positive impact a step further. You will be reaching far beyond your own consumption impacts and helping to build a better world for everyone!
How Can You Offset Your Personal Carbon Footprint
The carbon footprint is a key part of how sustainable we live. And it is one of the ways we measure the effects of our human-induced global climate change. Yes, even from eating clementines!
“Carbon footprint: the amount of greenhouse gasses and specifically carbon dioxide emitted by something (such as a person’s activities or a product’s manufacture and transport) during a given period”Merriam Webster
Basically, it is the amount of carbon emitted by you as an individual or an organization providing you with goods and services – including clementines:
- This includes GHG emissions from producing the products that we use and foods that we eat (e.g., power plants, factories or farms, and landfills)
- GHG emissions from fuel that we burn directly or indirectly (e.g., logistics and transportation, cooling or heating facilities),
- as well as the GHG emissions attributed to how we consume these products and foods.
Carbon offsets are reductions in carbon emissions that are used to compensate for carbon emissions occurring elsewhere – for example for the carbon emissions that are associated with clementines. They are measured in tons of CO2 equivalents and are bought and sold through international brokers, online retailers, and trading platforms on what is known as the global carbon offset market.
“Carbon Offset: a way for a company or person to reduce the level of carbon dioxide for which they are responsible by paying money to a company that works to reduce the total amount produced in the world, for example by planting trees”Oxford Dictionary
In terms of clementines – and indeed all food types – there will always be a carbon footprint, because of the resources it takes to get your food from farms to the place where you’ll eventually eat them. And while there are ways to reduce your carbon footprint when shopping for clementines, carbon offsets would be a way to reduce your CO2e emissions all the way down to net zero (or even to become climate positive).
However, when you purchase carbon offsets, it’s important that they actually make a difference in offsetting (aka reducing) total carbon emissions. To achieve that, the following are key criteria:
- Carbon offset projects have to be effective (different projects have different effectiveness rates)
- Carbon offset projects have to be additional
- Carbon offset projects have to be permanent
- The claims from carbon offset projects have to be verifiable
To find the best carbon offsets for you personally, check out our full guide on the best carbon offsets for individuals, where you’ll also learn more about how these carbon offset projects work, what their respective offsetting costs are, and what your best way would be to offset your own carbon emissions.
Though clementines have an extremely low carbon footprint, they still participate in some very unsustainable practices, as well as unethical ones. Their fertilizer usage causes significant damage to waterways, their pesticides are harmful to wildlife, and their irrigation needs put strains on natural resources. The industry has also been accused of worker exploitation and endangerment. However, there are lots of ways you can still consume clementines while being more sustainable and ethical, such as reducing packaging or contributing to environmental charities. These will help you be a more positively impactful clementine consumer!
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- Infopedia: Mandarin Oranges
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- The Fair Labor Association: Agriculture Standards
- MDPI Sustainability: Eating in Season—A Lever of Sustainability? An Interview Study on the Social Perception of Seasonal Consumption
- MDPI Foods: The Role of Local Seasonal Foods in Enhancing Sustainable Food Consumption: A Systematic Literature Review
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- EPA: The Sources and Solutions: Agriculture
- EPA: Reducing Food Waste and Packaging
- FoodPrint: The Environmental Impact of Food Packaging
- Researchgate: Plant Growth Yield and Fruit Quality of Clementine
- Arizona: Irrigating Citrus Trees
- Impactful Ninja: What is the Carbon Footprint of Clementines
- The Counter: Farmworker Strike in California
- The Independent: Children as Young as Five Suffer in Picking Fruit for Our Orange Juice
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- Researchgate: Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees
- Green Matters: How do Carbon Emissions Affect the Environment
- Science Direct: A Systematic Review of Soil Erosion in Citrus Orchards
- Iberdrola: What is Desertification
- The Independent: Avocado, Coffee, and Citrus Fruits Threaten Global Food Security
- WWF: 10 Products and Ingredients that Come From Tropical Forests
- Pachamama: Effects of Deforestation
- Gallant Intl: Environmental Impacts of Monocultures
- Water Footprint Network: What Is a Water Footprint?
- The Produce News: Citrus Import Demand Up and Growing in the United States
- Health Plan Spain: Weather in Spain
- EWG: Hormone-Disrupting Fungicides Found on Most Citrus Fruit
- FAO: Environmental Considerations in Irrigation Development
- VTech Works: Pesticides and Aquatic Animals
- Friends of the Earth: Effects of Pesticides on Our Wildlife
- USGS: Pesticides in Groundwater
- NCBI: The Effect of Fungicide on Soil Microbes
- Direct Farm: Potassium
- EPA: Phosphorus
- Mitsui: Reducing the Environmental Impact of Chemical Fertilizers
- SN Applied Sciences Journal: Worldwide pesticide usage and its impacts on ecosystem
- Our World in Data: Global greenhouse gas emissions from food production
- Les Domaines Export: Clémentine
- TIS.GDV: Clementines
- NCBI: Real-World CO2 and NOX Emissions From Refrigerated Vans
- Biological Diversity: The Plastic Production Problem
- TRVST: The Environmental Impact of Cardboard
- National Geographic: Deforestation
- Also Known As: 12 Interesting Facts About Packaging Waste
- SL Recycling: Benefits of Recycling Wood
- Colorado: The Hidden Damages of Landfill
- EPA: Reducing the Impact of Wasted Food
- GOV.BC: Waste Management
- Fruit Juice Focus: Spain
- KQED: Company Won’t Pay More than $5000 After Pesticide Exposure
- Research Gate: Environmental Sustainability of the Clementine production Systems in Italy and Spain
- We Forum: How Single Crop Farming is Harming Wildlife
- EPA: The Issue With Nitrogen Fertilizer
- Our World in Data: Greenhouse Gas Emissions per 1,000 kilocalories
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Climate Change Terms
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