What Are Nature-Based Carbon Offsets and How Do They Work: The Big Picture

What Are Nature-Based Carbon Offsets and How Do They Work: The Big Picture

By
Grace Smoot

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Nature-based carbon offsets are a form of carbon sequestration, the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in terrestrial/marine ecosystems. In the scope of carbon offsets, nature-based methods could play a crucial role in reducing atmospheric CO2 levels. So, we had to ask: What are nature-based carbon offsets really, and could they help us mitigate climate change?

Nature-based offsets are a specific type of carbon offset that focuses on the storage of atmospheric carbon in plants, soils, and the ocean, commonly referred to as our carbon sinks. They include different solutions like reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, and agricultural offsets.

Keep reading to find out all about what nature-based carbon offsets are, how they work, what their project life-cycle is, how effective they are, their pros and cons, and how they can help mitigate climate change.

The Big Picture of Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

Carbon offsets play an important role in mitigating the effects of global climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions beyond what we each can achieve through individual actions. Nature-based carbon offsets are a specific type of carbon offset that extracts carbon or methane (CH4) from the atmosphere so that it can be repurposed or stored permanently in various reservoirs. 

How are carbon offsets definedReductions in GHG emissions that are used to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere.
What are nature-based carbon offsetsNature-based carbon offsets are a specific type of carbon offset that focuses on the storage of atmospheric carbon in plants, soils, and the ocean, commonly referred to as our carbon sinks.
How do nature-based projects offset CO2 emissionsNature-based carbon offset projects reduce emissions by eliminating carbon from the atmosphere via reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, or agricultural practices.
When do nature-based projects offset CO2 emissionsREDD+, blue carbon offsets that protect existing seagrass beds and tidal marsh areas, biochar, and avoided grassland conversion offsets all reduce emissions immediately. On the other hand, reforestation, afforestation, mangrove-planting blue carbon, and agricultural agroforestry offsets experience delays in carbon reduction.
How effective and efficient are nature-based carbon offsetsEffectiveness: Depending on the type of nature-based offset, they can reinforce our terrestrial and marine carbon sinks and protect soil health; however, they can also lack permanence, may not reduce emissions immediately, and do not reduce your own carbon emissions.

Efficiency: Depending on the type of nature-based offset, they are relatively cost-effective, can preserve existing forests and marine ecosystems, and can continue to avoid CO2 emissions after project lifespans; however, they also face carbon storage capacity limitations, and may not yet be scaled to compensate for our global emissions.
What are the best nature-based carbon offsetsThe best nature-based carbon offsets are offered by The Arbor Day Foundation, REDD.plus, SeaTrees, and Husk, which offer reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, and agricultural carbon offset projects.
How can nature-based carbon offsets help mitigate climate changeNature-based solutions in general can specifically help mitigate climate change because they eliminate atmospheric carbon, which when emitted, can remain in our atmosphere for a long period of time. 

What Are Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

Carbon offsets are reductions in GHG emissions that are used to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere. They are measured in tons of CO2 equivalents and are bought and sold through international brokers, online retailers, and trading platforms.

Nature-based carbon offsets are a specific type of carbon offset that focuses on the storage of atmospheric carbon in plants, soils, and the ocean, commonly referred to as our carbon sinks.

How Are Carbon Offsets Defined

Carbon offsets play a crucial role in reducing our carbon footprint, the amount of CO2 emissions associated with an individual or an entity. 

Carbon footprint: the amount of greenhouse gasses and specifically carbon dioxide emitted by something (such as a person’s activities or a product’s manufacture and transport) during a given period

Merriam Webster

Basically, a carbon footprint is the amount of carbon emitted by an activity or an organization. This includes GHG emissions from fuel that we burn directly (e.g., heating a home, driving a car) and GHG emissions from manufacturing the products that we use (e.g., power plants, factories, and landfills). 

One way to reduce our carbon footprint is via the use of carbon offsets. These are reductions in GHG emissions that are measured in tons of CO2 equivalents and are bought and sold through international brokers, online retailers, and trading platforms. 

Carbon offset: a way for a company or person to reduce the level of carbon dioxide for which they are responsible by paying money to a company that works to reduce the total amount produced in the world, for example by planting trees”

Oxford Dictionary

When you hear the words “carbon offset”, think about the term “compensation”. Essentially, carbon offsets are reductions in GHG emissions that are used to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere. Carbon offsets can range anywhere from a couple of hundred tons of CO2 per program per year to thousands of tons of CO2 per program per year. 

How Are Nature-Based Carbon Offsets Defined

Carbon removal is the process of eliminating carbon from the atmosphere. It is also referred to as negative emissions or carbon drawdown.

Carbon Removal: the process of removing CO2 from the atmosphere”

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Carbon removal can be split into 2 categories, technological and natural carbon removal. Nature-based carbon offsets are a specific type of carbon offset that uses nature (e.g., trees and marine ecosystems) to extract carbon from the atmosphere and store it in biomass.

Carbon offsets that are commonly classified as nature-based carbon offsets include:

How Do Nature-Based Carbon Offsets Work

Purchasing nature-based carbon offsets funds carbon emission reduction projects that remove atmospheric CO2 via natural carbon absorption by trees, marine ecosystems, and biochar. It is a reactive, rather than a proactive, way of dealing with carbon emissions. 

How and When Do Nature-Based Carbon Offsets Reduce Your Carbon Footprint

Nature-based carbon offsets take advantage of trees, marine ecosystems, and biochar’s natural ability to absorb carbon from our atmosphere. It is one way to prevent the adverse effects of CO2 emissions that occur after they enter our atmosphere.

How Do Nature-Based Carbon Offsets Reduce Your Carbon Footprint

Nature-based carbon offset projects reduce emissions by eliminating carbon from the atmosphere via reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, or agricultural practices.

Removing carbon from the atmosphere is one way to mitigate the adverse effects of CO2 emissions that occur once they enter our atmosphere.

Related: Are you interested in learning more about the big picture of nature-based carbon offsets? Check it out in this article here: “What Are Nature-Based Carbon Offsets and How Do They Work? The Big Picture

When Do Nature-Based Carbon Offsets Reduce Your Carbon Footprint

  • Reforestation and afforestation projects experience delays in carbon reduction because finding suitable land and physically planting the trees to create a new forest takes time. All trees mature at different rates, but a typical hardwood tree takes around 20 years to reach maturity.
  • REDD+ projects reduce carbon emissions immediately because you are protecting existing vegetation rather than creating new vegetation. 
  • For blue carbon, carbon emission reductions are delayed when you plant new mangrove trees because you have to wait for the trees to reach maturity; however, protecting existing seagrass beds and tidal marsh areas reduces CO2 immediately.

What Could Prevent Nature-Based Carbon Offsets From Being Realized

Nature-based carbon offsets can lack permanence and additionality, face carbon storage capacity limitations, may not yet be scaled to compensate for our global emissions, and may not reduce carbon emissions immediately. 

  • Nature-based solutions such as reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, and some agriculture offsets can lack permanence because the carbon is stored in biomass (e.g., trees, seagrasses, and marshes) rather than in permanent reservoirs (e.g., underground in rock formations). Biomass can die naturally, and environmental disasters such as floods, fires, changes in land use, and climate change can negate any permanence.
  • The additionality of REDD+ projects cannot be measured exactly, because assessing what would have happened (but did not happen), cannot be measured exactly. 
  • Currently, reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, and agricultural offsets are also not scaled enough to keep pace with our global carbon emissions. Carbon storage capacity and inadequate funding are some of the limiting factors.
  • Reforestation, afforestation, blue carbon, and agricultural offsets may not reduce carbon emissions immediately because of the time needed to plant trees and for them to reach maturity. This means we must also wait decades after planting the tree to begin to reap most of the environmental benefits.

What Is the Project Life-Cycle of Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

To fully understand nature-based carbon offsets, we must assess each stage of its life cycle. This life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a method to evaluate the environmental impacts of products and materials. Over the years, companies have strategically used LCA to research and create more sustainable products. So, we had a look at the LCA for nature-based carbon offsets! 

Building of Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

The building of nature-based carbon offsets varies depending on the type of offset:

  • Agriculture: The building of agricultural carbon offsets includes identifying farms in need of reforestation and grasslands in need of protection. 

Operating and Maintaining of Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

Each nature-based carbon offset type has various operation and maintenance needs:

End-of-Life of Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

The end-of-life of nature-based carbon offsets also depends on the type of offset:

  • REDD+: Forests not protected – or not anymore protected – by REDD+ projects can be subject to deforestation activities. 
  • Blue Carbon: The end-of-life of blue carbon offsets would include anything that puts mangroves, seagrasses, or salt marshes at risk of being deforested or degraded, which hopefully would never occur.
  • Agriculture: The end-of-life of agricultural carbon offset projects would include anything that puts agroforestry or grasslands at risk of being destroyed, which hopefully would never occur.

AFR100: An Example Project of Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

Africa contains 17% of our planet’s forest cover yet is subjected to deforestation at 4 times the global average rate. The rainforest of the Congo Basin, the second-largest tropical forest in the world, spans 6 African countries and encompasses 500 million acres.

The African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative (AFR100) is a country-led effort to bring 100 million hectares of land in the African Congo Basin into restoration by 2030. The 33 countries involved aim to restore agricultural lands, forests, mangroves, wetlands, and grasslands which would add nutrients to the soil, increase biodiversity, create jobs, and improve food security

One Tree Planted offers AFR100 carbon offsets through its website at a cost of $20 per 1,000kg of CO2. They plant various indigenous tree species (e.g., shea and mahogany) as well as mango, avocado, guava, and Brazil nut trees in the Congo Basin region.

How Effective and Efficient Are Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

In terms of effectiveness, nature-based carbon offsets reinforce our terrestrial and marine carbon sinks and protect soil health; however, they can also lack permanence, may not reduce emissions immediately, and do not reduce your own carbon emissions.

In terms of efficiency, nature-based carbon offsets are relatively cost-effective, can preserve existing forests and marine ecosystems, and can continue to avoid CO2 emissions after project lifespans; however, they also face carbon storage capacity limitations, and may not yet be scaled to compensate for our global emissions.

Nature-based carbon offsets are effective at mitigating climate change because:

  • Reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, and agricultural offsets reinforce forests, which are one of our largest terrestrial carbon sinks
  • Blue carbon offsets reinforce coastal and marine ecosystems, which are some of our largest marine carbon sinks
  • Agricultural (e.g., biochar, agroforestry, and avoided grassland conversion) offsets can improve soil structure and nutrient cycling

However, nature-based carbon offsets can also lack effectiveness because: 

Nature-based carbon offsets are efficient at reducing CO2 emissions because:

  • Reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, and agricultural offsets are some of the most cost-effective methods of carbon emission reduction. 
  • REDD+ and blue carbon offsets can efficiently protect existing forests and marine ecosystems.
  • Reforestation, afforestation, and blue carbon offsets can continue to reduce carbon long after projects have been completed.

However, nature-based carbon offsets can also lack efficiency because: 

However, nature-based carbon offsets do not reduce your own carbon emissions, which can lead to greenwashing. This occurs when emissions are only offset and not reduced from the source, and the consumer is deceived into thinking they are offsetting their emissions but in reality, they are not. This is why we should first reduce our emissions before relying on offsets.

Related: Are you interested in learning more about how effective and efficient nature-based carbon offsets are? Check out the full article here: “How Effective and Efficient Are Nature-Based Carbon Offsets? Here Are the Facts

How Could You Offset Your Own Carbon Footprint With Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

The market for carbon offsets was small in the year 2000, but by 2010 it had already grown to represent nearly $10 billion worldwide. The voluntary carbon offset market (VCM) is where everyday consumers can purchase carbon offsets to offset their carbon emissions. 

The Ecosystem Marketplace predicts the VCM can grow to $50B by the year 2050. And because nature-based offsets can be effective and efficient at reducing carbon emissions, they are predicted to make up an increasingly larger share of this market.

Related: Are you interested in learning more about the best nature-based carbon offsets? Check out the full article here: “Best Carbon Nature-Based Carbon Offsets
Nature-Based Carbon Offset CompanyQuick Facts
The Arbor Day FoundationAbout: Carbon offset purchases support afforestation (and reforestation) projects in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (US), Nicaragua, and Peru.
Costs: $40 per 1,000kg of CO2
REDD.plusAbout: Carbon offset purchases support UNFCCC-verified REDD+ projects around the globe. REDD.plus is a central registry and exchange for REDD+ Result Units, a type of carbon credit. 
Costs: $16 per ton of CO2 
SeaTreesAbout: Carbon offset purchases support coral reef/kelp forest/watershed restoration as well as mangrove tree planting.
Costs: $22 per 1,000kg of CO2
HuskAbout: Husk converts rice husks into biochar, fertilizers, and biopesticides via smokeless pyrolysis, preventing the re-emission of carbon into the atmosphere. 
Costs: Husk uses resellers to sell its solutions. Visit Patch’s website to learn more about pricing. 
EcologiAbout: Carbon offset purchases support third-party certified reforestation/afforestation carbon offset projects including those in Madagascar, Mozambique, Bolivia, Morocco, Senegal, and Uruguay.
Costs: $6.04 per 1,000 kg of CO2 offset
One Tree PlantedAbout: Carbon offset purchases support reforestation/afforestation projects including those in the US, Romania, Iceland, and Africa.
Costs: $20 per 1,000kg of CO2
The Ocean FoundationAbout: Carbon offset purchases support the SeaGrass Grow, seagrass planting project.
Costs: $20 per 1,000kg of CO2
Wildlife WorksAbout: Carbon offset purchases support third-party certified carbon offset projects including The Kasigau Corridor, Mai Ndombe, and Southern Cardamom REDD+ projects in Kenya, Cambodia, and Colombia respectively.
Costs: $20 per ton of CO2
Vi AgroforestryAbout: Vi Agroforestry specializes in poverty reduction and environmental improvement through agroforestry and improved farming practices. 
Costs: $28 per 1,000kg of CO2 offset
CarbofexAbout: Carbofex’s pyrolysis technology takes waste biomass from urban or agricultural sources and turns it into biochar, which can then be used to enhance agricultural soils or to produce renewable energy.
Costs: Carbofex uses resellers to sell its solutions. Visit the Puro.earth website to learn more about their respective pricing.
TerrapassAbout: Carbon offset purchases support the reforestation, afforestation, and REDD+ projects in Peru, Canada, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the US.
Costs: $16.51-$17.63 per 1,000kg of CO2

What Are The 6 Pros and 6 Cons of Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

Nature-based carbon offsets are a cost-effective method to reinforce our terrestrial and marine carbon sinks, protect soil health, preserve biodiversity, and help maintain the water cycle. These offsets also allow us to reduce carbon emissions in ways we wouldn’t be able to accomplish individually.

However, nature-based offsets can also lack permanence and additionality, face carbon storage capacity limitations, may not yet be scaled to compensate for our global emissions, and may not reduce carbon emissions immediately. They also do not reduce your own carbon emissions, which can lead to greenwashing.

Related: Are you interested in learning more about the pros and cons of nature-based carbon offsets? Check out the full article here: “Nature-Based Carbon Offsets: All 6 Pros and 6 Cons Explained

What Are the 6 Pros of Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

Nature-based carbon offsets have various pros that make them effective at reducing carbon emissions.

6 Pros of Nature-Based Carbon OffsetsQuick Facts
#1: Nature-based carbon offsets reinforce our terrestrial carbon sinksNature-based offsets involving reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, and agriculture reinforce forests, which are one of our largest carbon sinks. 
#2: Nature-based carbon offsets reinforce our marine carbon sinksNature-based offsets involving blue carbon reinforce coastal and marine ecosystems, which are one of our largest carbon sinks.
#3: Nature-based carbon offsets protect soil healthNature-based offsets involving agriculture (e.g., biochar, agroforestry, and avoided grassland conversion) can improve soil structure and nutrient cycling. 
#4: Nature-based carbon offsets preserve biodiversity and help maintain the water cycleNature-based offsets involving reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, and agriculture preserve biodiversity, which in turn helps maintain clean water, air, and a healthy food supply.
#5: Nature-based carbon offsets are relatively cost-effectiveNature-based offsets involving reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, and agriculture are some of the most cost-effective methods of carbon emission reduction. 
#6: Nature-based carbon offsets allow us to reduce carbon emissions in ways we wouldn’t be able to accomplish individuallyNature-based offsets allow us to reduce emissions from activities where sustainable alternatives are not yet widely available. 

What Are the 6 Cons of Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

Understanding the drawbacks of nature-based offsets is important in order to effectively mitigate climate change.

6 Cons of Nature-Based Carbon OffsetsQuick Facts
#1: Nature-based carbon offsets often lack permanenceNature-based offsets involving reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, and agriculture often lack permanence because they are reversible solutions.
#2: Nature-based carbon offsets can lack additionality Nature-based offsets involving REDD+ often lack additionality because what would have happened without REDD+ intervention cannot be measured exactly.
#3: Nature-based carbon offsets face carbon storage capacity limitationsCarbon storage capacity limitations prevent nature-based offset efforts from being scalable enough to compensate for all of our carbon emissions.
#4: Nature-based carbon offsets are not yet scaled to compensate for our global emissionsNature-based offsets involving reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, and agriculture are not yet scaled to compensate for the billions of tons of GHG we emit annually. 
#5: Nature-based carbon offsets may not reduce carbon emissions immediatelyNature-based offsets involving reforestation, afforestation, blue carbon, and agriculture may not reduce carbon emissions immediately because of the time needed to plant trees and for them to reach maturity. 
#6: Nature-based carbon offsets do not reduce your own carbon emissions, which can lead to greenwashingNature-based carbon offsets do not reduce your own carbon emissions, which can lead to greenwashing. 

How Can Nature-Based Carbon Offsets Help Mitigate Climate Change

Climate change is a severe and long-term consequence of fossil fuel combustion. Nature-based carbon offsets can help mitigate climate change because they eliminate fossil-fuel-derived carbon from our atmosphere which, if left untreated, can remain there for tens of thousands of years and exacerbate the negative effects of climate change.

How is Climate Change Defined

Climate change is arguably the most severe, long-term global impact of fossil fuel combustion. Every year, approximately 33 billion tons (bt) of CO2 are emitted from burning fossil fuels. The carbon found in fossil fuels reacts with oxygen in the air to produce CO2

Climate change: changes in the earth’s weather, including changes in temperature, wind patterns and rainfall, especially the increase in the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere that is caused by the increase of particular gasses, especially carbon dioxide.

Oxford Dictionary

Atmospheric CO2 fuels climate change, which results in global warming. When CO2 and other air pollutants absorb sunlight and solar radiation in the atmosphere, they trap the heat and act as an insulator for the planet. Since the Industrial Revolution, Earth’s temperature has risen a little more than 1 degree Celsius (C), or 2 degrees Fahrenheit (F). Between 1880-1980 the global temperature rose by 0.07C every 10 years. This rate has more than doubled since 1981, with a current global annual temperature rise of 0.18C, or 0.32F, for every 10 years. 

As outlined in the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, we must cut current GHG emissions by 50% by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050

How Do Carbon Offsets Generally Help Mitigate Climate Change

Levels of carbon in our atmosphere that cause climate change have increased as a result of human emissions since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1750. The global average concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today registers at over 400 parts per million. Carbon offsets can help prevent these levels from increasing even more.

When you hear the words “carbon offset”, think about the term “compensation”. Essentially, carbon offsets are reductions in GHG emissions that are used to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere

Carbon offsets that meet key criteria and verified project standards, are additional and permanent, and are part of projects that are carried out until the end of their lifespan have the best chance of reducing carbon emissions and therefore reducing climate change. 

When we offset CO2 we also slow the rate of global temperature rise, which in turn minimizes the effects of climate change. 

How Do Nature-Based Carbon Offsets Specifically Help Mitigate Climate Change

Nature-based solutions in general can specifically help mitigate climate change because they eliminate atmospheric carbon, which when emitted, can remain in our atmosphere for a long period of time

Reforestation, afforestation, and REDD+ offsets specifically help mitigate climate change because they plant more trees, and trees remove CO2 from the air as they grow. By increasing the number of trees on our planet, we increase the amount of carbon they are capable of storing. The more carbon our forests can sequester, the less carbon there is in our atmosphere. 

Blue carbon offsets specifically help mitigate climate change because they protect coastal and marine ecosystems, which are capable of absorbing more CO2 per acre than rainforests and at a rate 10x greater. 

Agricultural carbon offsets such as biochar, agroforestry, and avoided grassland conversion can specifically help mitigate climate change because they reduce CO2 emissions in one of the biggest industries worldwide.

What Are Better Alternatives to Nature-Based Carbon Offsets

If used correctly, nature-based carbon offsets can provide environmental, economic, and social benefits beyond reducing carbon emissions. They have the potential to instigate meaningful environmental change and begin to reverse some of the effects of climate change. 

However, we can’t let this method be a guilt-free way to reduce carbon emissions. Nature-based carbon offsets must be used in conjunction with direct carbon reduction measures to reduce carbon emissions for the long term. 

These reduction measures don’t have to involve drastic changes either. Actions that may seem small can have a big impact because those small changes add up! You can reduce your carbon footprint in three main areas of your life: household, travel, and lifestyle. 

Reduce your household carbon footprint:

Reduce your travel carbon footprint:

  • Walk or bike when possible: The most efficient ways of traveling are walking, bicycling, or taking the train. Using a bike instead of a car can reduce carbon emissions by 75%. These forms of transportation also provide lower levels of air pollution.

Reduce your lifestyle carbon footprint:

  • Switch to renewable energy sources: The six most common types of renewable energy are solar, wind, hydro, tidal, geothermal, and biomass energy. They are a substitute for fossil fuels that can reduce the effects of global warming by limiting global carbon emissions and other pollutants.
  • Recycle: Recycling uses less energy and deposits less waste in landfills. Less manufacturing and transportation energy costs means fewer carbon emissions generated. Less waste in landfills means less CH4 is generated.
  • Eat less meat and dairy: Meat and dairy account for 14.5% of global GHG emissions, with beef and lamb being the most carbon-intensive. Globally, we consume much more meat than is considered sustainable, and switching to a vegan or vegetarian diet could reduce emissions. 
  • Take shorter showers: Approximately 1.2 trillion gallons of water are used each year in the United States just for showering purposes, and showering takes up about 17% of residential water usage. The amount of water consumed and the energy cost of that consumption are directly related. The less water we use the less energy we use. And the less energy we use, the less of a negative impact we have on the environment.

Because nature-based offsets are an indirect way and not a direct way of reducing emissions, they alone will not be enough to reduce global carbon emissions significantly. Direct measures of emission reductions, such as reducing individual energy use and consumption, are better alternatives to nature-based offsets. 

Related: Are you interested in learning why reducing your carbon footprint is so important? Check it out in this article here: “4 Main Reasons Why Reducing Your Carbon Footprint Is Important

Final Thoughts

Nature-based carbon offsets are a specific type of carbon offset that focuses on the storage of atmospheric carbon in plants, soils, and the ocean, commonly referred to as our carbon sinks. Emissions reduction occurs as emissions are eliminated via reforestation, afforestation, REDD+, blue carbon, or agricultural practices. Each type of offset has its pros and cons involving additionality, rapidity and longevity of emission reduction, and costs.

Although nature-based carbon offsets can instigate meaningful change, they should not be seen as the only solution to climate change. They are effective at reducing CO2 in the short term, but in the long term, they fail to reduce CO2 enough. These offsets also do not reduce your own carbon emissions, which can lead to greenwashing.

When used in conjunction with direct CO2 reduction measures, carbon offsetting can be much more effective. We should reduce our own carbon footprint as much as possible first, and only then choose the most effective nature-based carbon offsets.

Stay impactful,

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